malaria in Asia: a systematic review and spatiotemporal analysis.


for policy makers.

This research was funded in part by the Wellcome Trust.

data to describe the spatiotemporal distribution. The numbers of samples tested and those with each molecular marker in each administrative unit level were aggregated by year to calculate the marker prevalence over time.

markers, with the lowest of 4·3% in 2005 (n=47) and the highest of 62·9% in 2018 (n=264). Overall, the prevalence of Cys580Tyr mutation increased from 48·9% in 2002 to 84·9% in 2018.

From 2002 to 2018, there has been a steady increase in geographical locations and the proportion of infected people with validated artemisinin resistance markers. More consistent data collection, over more extended periods in the same areas with the rapid sharing of data are needed to map the spread and evolution of resistance to better inform policy decisions. Data in the literature are reported in a heterogeneous way leading to difficulties in pooling and interpretation. We propose here a tool with a set of minimum criteria for reporting future studies.

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