An evolutionary model to predict the frequency of antibiotic resistance under seasonal antibiotic use, and an application to Streptococcus pneumoniae.


with usage, as antibiotic selection alone would result in resistance fluctuating behind usage with a lag of three months when antibiotic use is seasonal. While most antibiotics selected for increased resistance, intriguingly, cephalosporins selected for decreased resistance to penicillins and macrolides, an effect consistent in the two communities. One extra monthly prescription of cephalosporins per 1000 children decreased the frequency of penicillin-resistant strains by 1.7%. This model emerges under minimal assumptions, quantifies the forces acting on resistance and explains up to 43% of the temporal variation in resistance.

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