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Beneficial and perverse effects of isoniazid preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-tuberculosis coinfected populations.

Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa, where the emergence of HIV has caused dramatic increases in tuberculosis (TB) case notifications, new strategies for TB control are necessary. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for HIV-TB coinfected individuals reduces the reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections and is being evaluated as a potential community-wide strategy for improving TB control. We developed a mathematical model of TB/HIV coepidemics to examine the impact of community-wide implementation of IPT for TB-HIV coinfected individuals on the dynamics of drug-sensitive and -resistant TB epidemics. We found that community-wide IPT will reduce the incidence of TB in the short-term but may also speed the emergence of drug-resistant TB. We conclude that community-wide IPT in areas of emerging HIV and drug-resistant TB should be coupled with diagnostic and treatment policies designed to identify and effectively treat the increasing proportion of patients with drug-resistant TB.

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