A hypothetical influenza vaccination season modeled according to possible U.S. influenza vaccination policies.
Hypothetical cohort of individuals aged 65 and older in the United States.
IIV3 cost $3,690 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, IIV4 cost $20,939 more than IIV3 per QALY gained, and high-dose IIV3 cost $31,214 more per QALY than IIV4. The model projected 83,775 fewer influenza cases and 980 fewer deaths with high-dose IIV3 than with the next most-effective vaccine: IIV4. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, high-dose IIV3 was the favored strategy if willingness to pay is $25,000 or more per QALY gained. Adjuvanted IIV3 cost-effectiveness depends on its price and effectiveness (neither yet determined in the United States) but could be favored if its relative effectiveness is 15% greater than that of IIV3.
From economic and public health standpoints, high-dose IIV3 for adults aged 65 years and older is likely to be favored over the other vaccines, based on currently available data. The cost-effectiveness of adjuvanted IIV3 should be reviewed after its effectiveness has been compared with that of other vaccines and its U.S. price is established.
Cost-effectiveness and public health benefits of available influenza vaccination strategies in U.S. elderly adults.
To compare the cost-effectiveness of four influenza vaccines available in the United States for persons aged 65 and older: trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3), quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), a more-expensive high-dose IIV3, and a newly approved adjuvanted IIV3.
Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model and sensitivity analyses.