In all immunocompromised individuals, a single PCV13 cost $70,937 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared to no vaccination; current recommendations cost $136,724/QALY. In HIV patients, with a longer life expectancy (22.5 years), current recommendations cost $89,391/QALY compared to a single PCV13. Results were sensitive to variation of life expectancy and vaccine effectiveness. The prior recommendation was not favored in any scenario.
One dose of PCV13 is more cost-effective for immunocompromised individuals than previous vaccination recommendations and may be more economically reasonable than current recommendations, depending on life expectancy and vaccine effectiveness in the immunocompromised.
The model considered immunocompromised persons aged 19-64 years and accounted for childhood PCV13 herd immunity; in a separate analysis, an HIV-infected subgroup was considered. PCV13 effectiveness was estimated by an expert panel; PPSV23 protection was modeled relative to PCV13 effectiveness. We assumed that both vaccines prevented invasive pneumococcal disease, but only PCV13 prevented nonbacteremic pneumonia.
Pneumococcal disease is a significant problem in immunocompromised persons, particularly in HIV-infected individuals. The CDC recently updated pneumococcal vaccination recommendations for immunocompromised adults, adding the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) to the previously recommended 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). This analysis estimates the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination strategies in HIV-infected individuals and in the broader immunocompromised adult group.
Markov model-based cost-effectiveness analysis.