Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rates were incorporated into the model, which assumed that IPD events occurred at twice the usual rate during a year of pandemic influenza. Societal and hospital perspectives were examined. Assumptions were that pneumococcal disease transmission from healthcare worker to patient did not occur, heightened IPD risk occurred for only 1 year, and PPV did not prevent noninvasive pneumonia, all of which potentially bias against vaccination.
Markov modeling was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of PPV in previously unvaccinated healthcare workers during an influenza pandemic.
From a societal standpoint, PPV of healthcare workers during an influenza pandemic is economically reasonable, costing $2935 per quality-adjusted life-year gained; results were robust to variation in multiple sensitivity analyses. However, from the hospital perspective, vaccinating healthcare workers was expensive, costing $1676 per employee absence day avoided, given an IPD risk that (although increased) would remain less than 1%.
Vaccinating all healthcare workers to protect against pneumococcal disease during a pandemic influenza outbreak is likely to be economically reasonable from the societal standpoint. However, PPV is expensive from the hospital perspective, which might prevent implementation of a PPV program unless it is externally subsidized.
To assess the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) among healthcare workers compared with nonuse of PPV during an influenza pandemic.