Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes up to about 100 million cases of disease each year, placing a major public health, social, and economic burden on numerous low-income and middle-income countries. Major advances by investigators, vaccine developers, and affected communities are revealing new insights and enabling novel interventions and approaches to dengue prevention and control. Such research has highlighted further questions about both the basic understanding of dengue and efforts to develop new tools. In this report, the third in a Series on dengue, we discuss existing approaches to dengue diagnostics, disease prognosis, surveillance, and vector control in low-income and middle-income countries, as well as potential consequences of vaccine introduction. We also summarise current knowledge and recent insights into dengue epidemiology, immunology, and pathogenesis, and their implications for understanding natural infection and current and future vaccines.