Although Escherichia coli infections are common throughout the developing world, their prevalence patterns in space and over time are not well characterized. We used serial case control data collected from 16 communities in northwestern Ecuador between 2004 and 2010, to examine the prevalence of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). At its peak, the regional prevalence of EIEC was 8.3 infections/100 persons but this decreased to 1 infection/1,000 persons. The regional prevalence of ETEC ranged from 8 infections/1,000 persons to 3.7 infections/100 persons. The prevalence pattern of EIEC resembled that of a large epidemic whereas the prevalence of ETEC was more stable over time. Here, we provide community-based evidence for temporal shifts in the dominant E. coli pathotype from EIEC to ETEC over a multi-year time period. Furthermore, genotype analysis suggests that a given strain of EIEC and ETEC can persist in this region for long periods, up to 24 and 55 months, respectively.