Drug resistance surveillance in resource-poor settings: current methods and considerations for TB, HIV, and malaria.


In resource-constrained environments, monitoring the occurrence of tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or malaria resistant to the limited number of available drugs is essential for national treatment program success. Countries with limited resources and technical capacity rely on survey designs and methods that are simple and easily integrated into routine clinical activities to minimize the impact on overburdened clinics. This paper reviews the most commonly used methods for drug-resistance surveillance of TB, HIV, and malaria and discusses the strengths and limitations of these different strategies.

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