Economic and financing studies are particularly important for decision-making when resources are scarce or considerably limited. This is the case for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In fact, the definition of NTDs is an economic one. The shortage of resources for NTD control may be due in large part to the fact that the burden of NTDs and economic value of control measures have not been fully characterized. A number of economic study methodologies are available: cost of illness can quantify the extent, magnitude, and change of a problem; cost of intervention studies can outline the feasibility and guide the design of a policy or intervention; and cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and return-on-investment studies can determine the potential value of different interventions and policies. NTDs have unique characteristics that require special consideration in such analyses. Hence, approaches used for other diseases may need modifications to capture the full impact of NTDs. While the existing literature has made important findings, there is a need for substantially more work, as many NTDs and their associated interventions and policies require more evaluation. With increasing work in this area, NTDs may not be as 'neglected' in the future as they are now.