In October, 2012, Fiji introduced routine infant immunisation with a ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) using three primary doses and no booster dose (3 + 0 schedule). Data are scarce for the effect of PCV in the Asia and Pacific region. We aimed to evaluate the effect of PCV10 on pneumonia hospital admissions in children younger than 5 years and adults aged 55 years and older in Fiji, 5 years after vaccine introduction.
We did a time-series analysis assessing changes in pneumonia hospital admissions at three public tertiary hospitals in Fiji. Four pneumonia outcomes were evaluated: all-cause pneumonia, severe or very severe pneumonia, hypoxic pneumonia, and radiological pneumonia. Participants aged younger than 2 months, 2-23 months, 24-59 months, and 55 years and older were included. Data were extracted from the national hospital admission database according to International Classification of Diseases-tenth revision codes J10·0-18·9, J21, and J22 for all-cause pneumonia. Medical records and chest radiographs were reviewed for the main tertiary hospital to reclassify hospital admissions in children aged younger than 2 years as severe or very severe, hypoxic, or radiological pneumonia as per WHO definitions. Time-series analyses were done using the synthetic control method and multiple imputation to adjust for changes in hospital usage and missing data.
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Australian Government.
Between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2017, the ratio of observed cases to expected cases for all-cause pneumonia was 0·92 (95% CI 0·70-1·36) for children aged younger than 2 months, 0·86 (0·74-1·00) for children aged 2-23 months, 0·74 (0·62-0·87) for children aged 24-59 months, and 1·90 (1·53-2·31) in adults aged 55 years and older, 5 years after PCV10 introduction. These findings indicate a reduction in all-cause pneumonia among children aged 24-59 months and an increase in adults aged 55 years and older, but no change among children aged younger than 2 months. Among children aged 2-23 months, we observed declines of 21% (95% CI 5-35) for severe or very severe pneumonia, 46% (33-56) for hypoxic pneumonia, and 25% (9-38) for radiological pneumonia. Mortality reduced by 39% (95% CI 5-62) for all-cause pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and asthma admissions in children aged 2-23 months.
The introduction of PCV10 was associated with a decrease in pneumonia hospital admissions in children aged 2-59 months. This is the first study in a middle-income country in the Asia and Pacific region to show the effect of PCV on pneumonia, filling gaps in the literature on the effects of PCV10 and 3 + 0 schedules. These data support decision making on PCV introduction for other low-income and middle-income countries in the region.
Reyburn R, Tuivaga E, Nguyen CD, Ratu FT, Nand D, Kado J, Tikoduadua L, Jenkins K, de Campo M, Kama M, Devi R, Rafai E, Weinberger DM, Mulholland EK, Russell FM. (2020). Effect of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction on pneumonia hospital admissions in Fiji: a time-series analysis. The Lancet. Global health