In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the epidemiology of pandemic-prone influenza viruses in urban settings. Using data from a prospective sentinel surveillance network, we characterized the emergence, epidemiology, and transmission dynamics of 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza (H1N1pdm09) in Kampala, Uganda. After virus introduction via international air travel from England in June 2009, we estimated the basic reproductive number in Kampala to be 1.06-1.13, corresponding to attack rates of 12-22%. We subsequently identified 613 cases of influenza in Kampala from 2009 to 2015, of which 191 (31.2%) were infected with H1N1pdm09. Patients infected with H1N1pdm09 were more likely to be older adult (ages 35-64) males with illness onset during rainy season months. Urban settings in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to importation and intense transmission of pandemic-prone influenza viruses. Enhanced surveillance and influenza pandemic preparedness in these settings is needed.
Cummings MJ, Bakamutumaho B, Yang W, Wamala JF, Kayiwa J, Owor N, Namagambo B, Byaruhanga T, Wolf A, Lutwama JJ, Shaman J, O'Donnell MR. (2018). Emergence, Epidemiology, and Transmission Dynamics of 2009 Pandemic A/H1N1 Influenza in Kampala, Uganda, 2009-2015. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 98(1)