Professor and Head
Hong Kong University
Hong Kong experienced two large epidemics of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09). We used regression methods to estimate the excess mortality associated with each epidemic. The first epidemic of H1N1pdm09 peaked in September 2009 and was associated with 2·13 [95% confidence interval (CI): -8·08, 11·82] excess all-cause deaths per 100 000 population. The second epidemic of H1N1pdm09 in early 2011 was associated with 4·72 [95% CI: -0·70, 10·50] excess deaths per 100 000 population. More than half of the estimated excess all-cause deaths were attributable to respiratory causes in each epidemic. The reasons for substantial impact in the second wave remain to be clarified.