An association between malaria and risk for death among patients with Ebola virus disease has suggested within-host interactions between Plasmodium falciparum parasites and Ebola virus. To determine whether such an interaction might also influence the probability of acquiring either infection, we used a large snapshot surveillance study from rural Gabon to test if past exposure to Ebola virus is associated with current infection with Plasmodium spp. during nonepidemic conditions. We found a strong positive association, on population and individual levels, between seropositivity for antibodies against Ebola virus and the presence of Plasmodium parasites in the blood. According to a multiple regression model accounting for other key variables, antibodies against Ebola virus emerged as the strongest individual-level risk factor for acquiring malaria. Our results suggest that within-host interactions between malaria parasites and Ebola virus may underlie epidemiologic associations.