Factors associated with HIV serodiscordance among couples in Mozambique: Comparison of the 2009 INSIDA and 2015 IMASIDA surveys.


Recent studies suggest that a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections in mature epidemics occurs within discordant couples, making discordancy a major contributor to the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa. This paper aims at assessing changes over a five-year period (2009-2015) on the (risk) factors associated with HIV serodiscordance among couples in Mozambique, using cross-sectional data from the INSIDA and IMASIDA surveys. The pooled data of both surveys were analyzed using a joint model for three parameters characterizing in a particular way disagreement and sero(con/dis)corance between the HIV statuses of couples, as introduced by Aerts et al.: the probability that the female partner is HIV positive, given that both partners differ in their HIV status, the probability that only one partner is HIV positive, given that at least one of the two partners is positive ("positive" serodiscordance), and the probability that both partners are negative given that at most one of the two partners is positive ("negative" seroconcordance). The results reveal similar significant factors and estimates as in Aerts et al. (HIV prevalence, union number for woman, STI for man, condom use by woman and wealth index), but the additional significant factors "condom use by man" (no use had a negative effect on the positive serodiscordance) and "union number for man" (for couples where the man has been married or co-habiting with a woman before had a decreased negative seroconcordance) were identified. The only factor that had a different effect over time (IMASIDA as compared to INSIDA) was the effect of "HIV prevalence of province" on the negative seroconcordance. The negative effect of a higher HIV prevalence was less pronounced in 2015 for negative seroconcordance.

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