Hospitalizations Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza in Children, Including Children Diagnosed with Asthma.


RSV-associated hospitalization rates in young children are high and decline rapidly with age. There are additional risks for both RSV and influenza hospitalization associated with a prior diagnosis of asthma, with the rates of RSV-related hospitalization in the youngest children diagnosed with asthma being particularly high.

There is uncertainty about the burden of hospitalization associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza in children, including those with underlying medical conditions.

The estimated average annual rates (per 100,000 children) of RSV-associated hospitalization with a respiratory cause (ICD-9 codes 460-519) present anywhere in the discharge diagnosis were 2,381 (95% CI(2252,2515)) in children <1 year of age; 710.6 (609.1, 809.2) (1 y old); 395 (327.7, 462.4) (2 y old); 211.3 (154.6, 266.8) (3 y old); 111.1 (62.4, 160.1) (4 y old); 72.3 (29.3, 116.4) (5-6 y of age); 35.6 (9.9,62.2) (7-11 y of age); and 39 (17.5, 60.6) (12-17 y of age). The corresponding rates of influenza-associated hospitalization were lower, ranging from 181 (142.5, 220.3) in <1 year old to 17.9 (11.7, 24.2) in 12-17 years of age. The relative risks for RSV-related hospitalization associated with a prior diagnosis of asthma in age groups <5 y ranged between 3.1 (2.1, 4.7) (<1 y old) and 6.7 (4.2, 11.8) (2 y old; the corresponding risks for influenza-related hospitalization ranged from 2.8 (2.1, 4) (<1y old) to 4.9 (3.8, 6.4) (3 y old).

We applied previously developed methodology to Health Care Cost and Utilization Project hospitalization data and additional data related to asthma diagnosis/previous history in hospitalized children to estimate RSV and influenza-associated hospitalization rates in different subpopulations of US children between 2003 and 2010.

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