Individual- and Facility-Level Factors Associated with Facility Testing among Men in Malawi: Findings from a Representative Community Survey.


(1) Background: Men frequent outpatient departments (OPD) but are underrepresented in HIV testing services throughout sub-Saharan Africa. (2) Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a community-based survey with men in rural Malawi to assess factors associated with HIV testing, and being offered testing, during men's OPD visits. We include OPD visits made by men in-need of testing as our unit of observation. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models were conducted. (3) Results: 782 men were eligible for these analyses, with 1575 OPD visits included (median two visits per man; IQR 1-3). 17% of OPD visits resulted in HIV testing. Being offered testing (aOR 42.45; 95% CI 15.13-119.10) and satisfaction with services received (aOR 3.27; 95% CI 1.28-8.33) were significantly associated with HIV testing. 14% of OPD visits resulted in being offered HIV testing. Being married/steady relationship (aOR 2.53; 95% CI 1.08-5.91) and having a sexual partner living with HIV (aOR 8.22; 95% CI 1.67-40.49) were significantly associated with being offered testing. (4) Conclusion: Being offered HIV testing was the strongest factor associated with testing uptake, while HIV status of sexual partner had the strongest association with being offered testing. Implementation of provider-initiated-testing should be prioritized for male OPD visits.

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