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Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States During the 2016-2017 Season.

Abstract

During the 2016-2017 influenza season, vaccine effectiveness (VE) across age groups and vaccine types was examined among outpatients with acute respiratory illness at 5 US sites using a test-negative design that compared the odds of vaccination among reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza positives and negatives.

Among 7083 enrollees, 1342 (19%) tested positive for influenza A(H3N2), 648 (9%) were positive for influenza B (including B/Yamagata, n = 577), and 5040 (71%) were influenza negative. Vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32% to 46%) against any influenza virus, 33% (95% CI, 23% to 41%) against influenza A(H3N2) viruses, and 53% (95% CI, 43% to 61%) against influenza B viruses.

The 2016-2017 influenza vaccines provided moderate protection against any influenza among outpatients but were less protective against influenza A(H3N2) viruses than B viruses. Approaches to improving effectiveness against A(H3N2) viruses are needed.

In recent influenza seasons, the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines against circulating A(H3N2) virus has been lower than against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses, even when circulating viruses remained antigenically similar to vaccine components.

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