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Insights into adsorptive removal of antimony contaminants: Functional materials, evaluation and prospective.

Abstract

The application of antimony containing compounds in the industry has generated considerable antimony contaminants, which requires to develop methods that are as efficient as possible to remove antimony from water in the view of human health. The adsorption is among the most high-efficiency and reliable purification methods for hazardous materials due to the simple operation, convenient recycling and low cost. Herein, this review systematically summarizes the functional materials that are used to adsorb antimony from water, including metal (oxides) based materials, carbon-based materials, MOFs and molecular sieves, layered double hydroxides, natural materials, and organic-inorganic hybrids. The iron-based adsorbents stand out among these adsorbents because of their excellent performance. Moreover, the interaction between antimony and different functional materials is discussed in detail, while the inner-sphere complexation, hydrogen bond as well as ligand exchange are the main impetus during antimony adsorption. In addition, the desorption methods in adsorbents recycling are also comprehensively summarized. Furthermore, we propose an adsorption capacity balanced evaluation function (ABEF) based on the reported results to evaluate the performance of the antimony adsorption materials for both Sb(III) and Sb(V), as antimony usually has two valence forms of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in wastewater. Another original insight in this review is that we put forward a potential application prospect for the antimony-containing waste adsorbents. The feasible future development includes the utilization of the recycled antimony-containing waste adsorbents in catalysis and energy storage, and this will provide a green and sustainable pathway for both antimony removal and resourization.

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