Antibodies that bind viral surface proteins can limit the spread of the infection through neutralizing and non-neutralizing functions. During both acute and chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, antibody-virion immune complexes are formed, but fail to ensure protection. In this study, we develop a mathematical model of multivalent antibody binding and use it to determine the dynamical interactions that lead to immune complexes formation and the role of complexes with increased numbers of bound antibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease. We compare our predictions with published temporal virus and immune complex data from acute infected patients. Finally, we derive quantitative and qualitative conditions needed for antibody-induced protection.