Mesenchymal stem cells have been demonstrated to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis, prompting clinical trials in multiple sclerosis which are currently ongoing. An important question is whether this therapeutic effect generalises to other autoimmune neurological diseases. We performed two trials of efficacy of MSCs in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in Lewis (LEW/Han (M)Hsd) rats, a model of human autoimmune inflammatory neuropathies. No differences between the groups were found in clinical, histological or electrophysiological outcome measures. This was despite the ability of mesenchymal stem cells to inhibit proliferation of CD4+ T-cells in vitro. Therefore the efficacy of MSCs observed in autoimmune CNS demyelination models do not necessarily generalise to the treatment of other forms of neurological autoimmunity.