Hepatitis B virus infection is the cause of liver diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. Understanding the host-virus mechanisms that mediate virus pathogenesis can help design better preventive measures for disease control. Mathematical models have been used alongside experimental data to provide insight into the role of immune responses during the acute and chronic hepatitis B infections as well as virus dynamics following administration of combined drug therapy. In this paper, we review several modeling studies on virus-host interactions during acute infection, the virus-host characteristics responsible for transition to chronic disease, and the efficacy and optimal control measures of drug therapy. We conclude by presenting our opinion on the future directions of the field.