Associate Professor / Chancellor’s Fellow
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
antibiotic resistance. We found that the relative strength and directionality of competition between drug-resistant and drug-sensitive pneumococcal strains was the most important determinant of whether vaccination would promote, inhibit, or have little effect upon the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Last, we show that country-specific differences in pathogen transmission substantially altered the predicted impact of vaccination, highlighting that policies for managing antibiotic resistance with vaccines must be tailored to a specific pathogen and setting.