The results of this study indicate a discordance between gut microbiome composition and evolutionary history in primates, calling into question previous notions about host genetic control of the primate gut microbiome. Microbiome similarities between humans consuming nonindustrialized diets and monkeys characterized by subsisting on eclectic, omnivorous diets also raise questions about the ecological and nutritional drivers shaping the human gut microbiome. Moreover, a more detailed understanding of the factors associated with gut microbiome plasticity in primates offers a framework to understand why humans following industrialized lifestyles have deviated from states thought to reflect human evolutionary history. The results also provide perspectives for developing therapeutic dietary manipulations that can reset configurations of the gut microbiome to potentially improve human health.
Gomez A, Sharma AK, Mallott EK, Petrzelkova KJ, Jost Robinson CA, Yeoman CJ, Carbonero F, Pafco B, Rothman JM, Ulanov A, Vlckova K, Amato KR, Schnorr SL, Dominy NJ, Modry D, Todd A, Torralba M, Nelson KE, Burns MB, Blekhman R, Remis M, Stumpf RM, Wilson BA, Gaskins HR, Garber PA, White BA, Leigh SR. (2019). Plasticity in the Human Gut Microbiome Defies Evolutionary Constraints. mSphere, 4(4)