Sustained Malaria Transmission despite Reactive Screen-and-Treat in a Low-Transmission Area of Southern Zambia.


parasite prevalence was measured using an RDT and by quantitative PCR (qPCR). A 24-single nucleotide polymorphism molecular bar-code assay was used to genotype parasites. Eighty-four index case households with 676 residents were enrolled between March 2016 and March 2018. Within each season, parasite prevalence declined significantly in index households at the 30-day visit and remained low at the 90-day visit. However, parasite prevalence was not reduced to zero. Infections identified by qPCR persisted between study visits and were not identified by RDT. Parasites identified within the same household were most genetically related; however, overall parasite relatedness was low and similar across time and space. Thus, despite implementation of a reactive screen-and-treat program, parasitemia was not eliminated, and persisted in targeted households for at least 3 months.

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