Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent medically important mosquito-borne virus in the world. Upon DENV infection of a host cell, DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) can be found intracellularly as a monomer, associated with the cell surface as a dimer, and secreted as a hexamer into the bloodstream. NS1 plays a variety of roles in the viral life cycle, particularly in RNA replication and immune evasion of the complement pathway. Over the past several years, key roles for NS1 in the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease have emerged, including direct action of the protein on the vascular endothelium and triggering release of vasoactive cytokines from immune cells, both of which result in endothelial hyperpermeability and vascular leak. Importantly, the adaptive immune response generates a robust response against NS1, and its potential contribution to dengue vaccines is also discussed.