The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to trillions of bacteria that play a substantial role in host metabolism and immunity. While progress has been made in understanding the role that microbial communities play in human health and disease, much less attention has been given to host-associated microbiomes in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here we review past and current research exploring the gut microbiome of NHPs. First, we summarize methods for characterization of the NHP gut microbiome. Then we discuss variation in gut microbiome composition and function across different NHP taxa. Finally, we highlight how studying the gut microbiome offers new insights into primate nutrition, physiology, and immune system function, as well as enhances our understanding of primate ecology and evolution. Microbiome approaches are useful tools for studying relevant issues in primate ecology. Further study of the gut microbiome of NHPs will offer new insight into primate ecology and evolution as well as human health.