We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) for prevention of influenza-associated hospitalizations among adults during the 2018-2019 influenza season. Adults admitted with acute respiratory illness to 14 hospitals of the US Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN) and testing positive for influenza were cases; patients testing negative were controls. VE was estimated using logistic regression and inverse probability of treatment weighting. We analyzed data from 2863 patients with a mean age of 63 years. Adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-associated hospitalization was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-68%). Adjusted VE against influenza A(H3N2) virus-associated hospitalization was -2% (95% CI, -65% to 37%) and differed significantly by age, with VE of -130% (95% CI, -374% to -27%) among adults 18 to ≤56 years of age. Although vaccination halved the risk of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-associated hospitalizations, it conferred no protection against influenza A(H3N2)-associated hospitalizations. We observed negative VE for young and middle-aged adults but cannot exclude residual confounding as a potential explanation.
Ferdinands JM, Gaglani M, Ghamande S, Martin ET, Middleton D, Monto AS, Silveira F, Talbot HK, Zimmerman R, Smith ER, Patel M, . (2021). Vaccine Effectiveness Against Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations Among Adults, 2018-2019, US Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network. The Journal of infectious diseases, 224(1)