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Ben Cowling

Professor and Head

Education

Affiliations

Projects

MIDAS CENTER FOR COMMUNICABLE DISEASE DYNAMICS

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of General Medical Sciences
People: Laura White, Ted Cohen, William Hanage, Rene Niehus, Ben Cowling, Tyler Brown, Joseph Wu, Mauricio Santillana Guzman, Joseph Lewnard, Aimee Taylor, Pablo Martinez de Salazar, Lerato Magosi, Edward Goldstein, Christine Tedijanto, Tigist Menkir, Sze Man Leung, Hsiao-Han Chang, Caroline Buckee, Pamela Martinez, Marc Lipsitch
2009 – 2020

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Papers

Cowling BJ, Perera RAPM, Fang VJ, Chu DKW, Hui APW, Yeung APC, Peiris JSM, Wong WHS, Chan ELY, Chiu SS. (2019). Maternal antibodies against influenza in cord blood and protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Shiu EYC, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. (2019). Controversy around airborne versus droplet transmission of respiratory viruses: implication for infection prevention. Current opinion in infectious diseases

Valkenburg SA, Cowling BJ. (2019). Turning influenza vaccinology on its head to reveal the stalk. The Lancet. Infectious diseases

Chua H, Feng S, Lewnard JA, Sullivan SG, Blyth CC, Lipsitch M, Cowling BJ. (2019). The use of test-negative controls to monitor vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review of methodology. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

Lim WW, Leung NHL, Sullivan SG, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cowling BJ. (2019). Distinguishing Causation from Correlation in the Use of Correlates of Protection to Evaluate and Develop Influenza Vaccines. American journal of epidemiology

Cowling BJ, Sullivan SG. (2019). The Value of Neuraminidase Inhibition Antibody Titers in Influenza Seroepidemiology. The Journal of infectious diseases, 219(3)

Chua H, Chiu SS, Chan ELY, Feng S, Kwan MYW, Wong JSC, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ. (2019). Effectiveness of Partial and Full Influenza Vaccination Among Children Aged <9 Years in Hong Kong, 2011-2019. The Journal of infectious diseases, 220(10)

Ng TWY, Perera RAPM, Fang VJ, Yau EM, Peiris JSM, Tam YH, Cowling BJ. (2019). The effect of influenza vaccination history on changes in hemagglutination inhibition titers following receipt of the 2015/16 influenza vaccine in older adults in Hong Kong. The Journal of infectious diseases

Cowling BJ, Lim WW, Perera RAPM, Fang VJ, Leung GM, Peiris JSM, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ. (2019). Influenza Hemagglutination-inhibition Antibody Titer as a Mediator of Vaccine-induced Protection for Influenza B. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 68(10)

Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2019). Remaining challenges for prevention and control of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The Lancet. Child & adolescent health, 3(6)

Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2019). Reconciling estimates of the global influenza burden. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine, 7(1)

Yang B, Lau EHY, Cowling BJ. (2019). Estimating the Severity Profile of Enterovirus A71 Infections in Children: A Bayesian Synthesis Framework. American journal of epidemiology, 188(2)

Chiu SS, Kwan MY, Feng S, Chan EL, Chua H, Wong JS, Peiris JM, Cowling BJ. (2019). Early season estimate of influenza vaccination effectiveness against influenza hospitalisation in children, Hong Kong, winter influenza season 2018/19. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 24(5)

Lim WW, Wu P, Bond HS, Wong JY, Ni K, Seto WH, Jit M, Cowling BJ. (2019). Determinants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in the Asia-Pacific region: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of global antimicrobial resistance

Shiu EYC, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. (2019). Controversy around airborne versus droplet transmission of respiratory viruses: implication for infection prevention. Current opinion in infectious diseases, 32(4)

Wei VWI, Wong JYT, Perera RAPM, Kwok KO, Fang VJ, Barr IG, Peiris JSM, Riley S, Cowling BJ. (2018). Incidence of influenza A(H3N2) virus infections in Hong Kong in a longitudinal sero-epidemiological study, 2009-2015. PloS one, 13(5)

Cowling BJ, Chui CSL, Lim WW, Wu P, Hui CKM, Peiris JSM, Chan EW. (2018). Use of influenza antivirals in patients hospitalized in Hong Kong, 2000-2015. PloS one, 13(1)

Tam YH, Valkenburg SA, Perera RAPM, Wong JHF, Fang VJ, Ng TWY, Kwong ASK, Tsui WWS, Ip DKM, Poon LLM, Chau CKV, Barr IG, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ. (2018). Immune Responses to Twice-Annual Influenza Vaccination in Older Adults in Hong Kong. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 66(6)

Valkenburg SA, Leung NHL, Bull MB, Yan LM, Li APY, Poon LLM, Cowling BJ. (2018). The Hurdles From Bench to Bedside in the Realization and Implementation of a Universal Influenza Vaccine. Frontiers in immunology

Yang J, Lau YC, Wu P, Feng L, Wang X, Chen T, Ali ST, Peng Z, Fang VJ, Zhang J, He Y, Lau EHY, Qin Y, Yang J, Zheng J, Jiang H, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2018). Variation in Influenza B Virus Epidemiology by Lineage, China. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(8)

Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2018). Real-time forecasting of infectious disease epidemics. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, 24 Suppl 6(5)

Chiu SS, Kwan MYW, Feng S, Wong JSC, Leung CW, Chan ELY, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ. (2018). Interim estimate of influenza vaccine effectiveness in hospitalised children, Hong Kong, 2017/18. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 23(8)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Peiris JS. (2018). Influenza-like illness and viral aetiology in Hong Kong children. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, 24 Suppl 6(5)

Zhang H, Xiong Q, Wu P, Chen Y, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. (2018). Influenza-associated mortality in Yancheng, China, 2011-15. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 12(1)

Li L, Wong JY, Wu P, Bond HS, Lau EHY, Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2018). Heterogeneity in Estimates of the Impact of Influenza on Population Mortality: A Systematic Review. American journal of epidemiology, 187(2)

Li Y, Chang Z, Wu P, Liao Q, Liu F, Zheng Y, Luo L, Zhou Y, Chen Q, Yu S, Guo C, Chen Z, Long L, Zhao S, Yang B, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2018). Emerging Enteroviruses Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, China, 2010-2016. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(10)

Cowling BJ, Chiu SS. (2018). Efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in young children. The Lancet. Child & adolescent health, 2(5)

Feng S, Chiu SS, Chan ELY, Kwan MYW, Wong JSC, Leung CW, Chung Lau Y, Sullivan SG, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2018). Effectiveness of influenza vaccination on influenza-associated hospitalisations over time among children in Hong Kong: a test-negative case-control study. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine, 6(12)

Cowling BJ, Sullivan SG. (2018). A concern over terminology in vaccine effectiveness studies. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 23(10)

Wu P, Presanis AM, Bond HS, Lau EHY, Fang VJ, Cowling BJ. (2017). A joint analysis of influenza-associated hospitalizations and mortality in Hong Kong, 1998-2013. Scientific reports, 7(1)

Ip DK, Lau LL, Leung NH, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Chu DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Uyeki TM, Cowling BJ. (2017). Viral Shedding and Transmission Potential of Asymptomatic and Paucisymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections in the Community. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 64(6)

Cowling BJ, Wu P, Lo JYC, Chan KH, Chan ELY, Fang VJ, So LY, Peiris JSM, Chiu SS. (2017). Population-Based Pediatric Hospitalization Burden of Lineage-Specific Influenza B in Hong Kong, 2004-2014. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 65(2)

Kwok KO, Riley S, Perera RAPM, Wei VWI, Wu P, Wei L, Chu DKW, Barr IG, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2017). Relative incidence and individual-level severity of seasonal influenza A H3N2 compared with 2009 pandemic H1N1. BMC infectious diseases, 17(1)

Cowling BJ, Caini S, Chotpitayasunondh T, Djauzi S, Gatchalian SR, Huang QS, Koul PA, Lee PI, Muttalif AR, Plotkin S, . (2017). Influenza in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Influenza Initiative. Vaccine, 35(6)

Baudon E, Peyre M, Peiris M, Cowling BJ. (2017). Epidemiological features of influenza circulation in swine populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 12(6)

Ip DK, Lau EH, So HC, Xiao J, Lam CK, Fang VJ, Tam YH, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2017). A Smart Card-Based Electronic School Absenteeism System for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Hong Kong: Design, Implementation, and Feasibility Assessment. JMIR public health and surveillance, 3(4)

Jiang H, Wu P, Uyeki TM, He J, Deng Z, Xu W, Lv Q, Zhang J, Wu Y, Tsang TK, Kang M, Zheng J, Wang L, Yang B, Qin Y, Feng L, Fang VJ, Gao GF, Leung GM, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2017). Preliminary Epidemiologic Assessment of Human Infections With Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, China. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 65(3)

Cowling BJ, Kwan MY, Wong JS, Feng S, Leung CW, Chan EL, Chan KH, Ng TK, To WK, Peiris MJ, Chiu SS. (2017). Interim estimates of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against influenza-associated hospitalization in children in Hong Kong, 2015-16. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 11(1)

Cowling BJ, Xu C, Tang F, Zhang J, Shen J, Havers F, Wendladt R, Leung NH, Greene C, Iuliano AD, Shifflett P, Song Y, Zhang R, Kim L, Chen Y, Chu DK, Zhu H, Shu Y, Yu H, Thompson MG, . (2017). Cohort profile: the China Ageing REespiratory infections Study (CARES), a prospective cohort study in older adults in Eastern China. BMJ open, 7(10)

Feng S, Fowlkes AL, Steffens A, Finelli L, Cowling BJ. (2017). Assessment of Virus Interference in a Test-negative Study of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 28(4)

Qin Y, Zhang Y, Wu P, Feng S, Zheng J, Yang P, Pan Y, Wang Q, Feng L, Pang X, Puig-Barberà J, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2016). Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalization among Beijing residents in China, 2013-15. Vaccine, 34(20)

Virlogeux V, Fang VJ, Park M, Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2016). Comparison of incubation period distribution of human infections with MERS-CoV in South Korea and Saudi Arabia. Scientific reports

Cowling BJ, Leung GM. (2016). Effectiveness of an internet-delivered handwashing intervention. Lancet (London, England), 387(10016)

Virlogeux V, Yang J, Fang VJ, Feng L, Tsang TK, Jiang H, Wu P, Zheng J, Lau EH, Qin Y, Peng Z, Peiris JS, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2016). Association between the Severity of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections and Length of the Incubation Period. PloS one, 11(2)

Ip DKM, Lau LLH, Chan KH, Fang VJ, Leung GM, Peiris MJS, Cowling BJ. (2016). The Dynamic Relationship Between Clinical Symptomatology and Viral Shedding in Naturally Acquired Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Virus Infections. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 62(4)

Lipsitch M, Cowling BJ. (2016). Zika vaccine trials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 353(6304)

Zhang Y, Feng S, Cowling BJ. (2016). Changes in the primary outcome in Ebola vaccine trial. Lancet (London, England), 387(10027)

Yang B, Lau EH, Wu P, Cowling BJ. (2016). Transmission of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and Its Potential Driving Factors in Hong Kong. Scientific reports

Leung NH, Zhou J, Chu DK, Yu H, Lindsley WG, Beezhold DH, Yen HL, Li Y, Seto WH, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2016). Quantification of Influenza Virus RNA in Aerosols in Patient Rooms. PloS one, 11(2)

Cowling BJ, Feng S, Finelli L, Steffens A, Fowlkes A. (2016). Assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness in a sentinel surveillance network 2010-13, United States. Vaccine, 34(1)

Sullivan SG, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cowling BJ. (2016). Theoretical Basis of the Test-Negative Study Design for Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness. American journal of epidemiology, 184(5)

Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2016). The authors reply. Epidemiology and infection, 144(12)

Xu C, Fang VJ, Perera RA, Kam AM, Ng S, Chan YH, Chan KH, Ip DK, Peiris JM, Cowling BJ. (2016). Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Was Not Associated with Influenza Virus Infection in Children and Adults in Hong Kong, 2009-2010. The Journal of nutrition, 146(12)

Bond HS, Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2016). Regression approaches in the test-negative study design for assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness. Epidemiology and infection, 144(8)

Wong JY, Wu P, Lau EH, Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Ho LM, Cowling BJ. (2016). Real-time estimation of the hospitalization fatality risk of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Hong Kong. Epidemiology and infection, 144(8)

Freeman G, Perera RA, Ngan E, Fang VJ, Cauchemez S, Ip DK, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2016). Quantifying homologous and heterologous antibody titre rises after influenza virus infection. Epidemiology and infection, 144(11)

Zhao X, Fang VJ, Ohmit SE, Monto AS, Cook AR, Cowling BJ. (2016). Quantifying Protection Against Influenza Virus Infection Measured by Hemagglutination-inhibition Assays in Vaccine Trials. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 27(1)

Liao Q, Wu P, Lam WW, Fang VJ, Wu JT, Leung GM, Fielding R, Cowling BJ. (2016). Public risk perception and attitudes towards live poultry markets before and after their closure due to influenza A(H7N9), Hong Kong, January-February 2014. Journal of public health (Oxford, England), 38(1)

Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Perera RA, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cauchemez S, Cowling BJ. (2016). Interpreting Seroepidemiologic Studies of Influenza in a Context of Nonbracketing Sera. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 27(1)

Park M, Wu P, Goldstein E, Joo Kim W, Cowling BJ. (2016). Influenza-Associated Excess Mortality in South Korea. American journal of preventive medicine, 50(4)

Wu P, Peng Z, Fang VJ, Feng L, Tsang TK, Jiang H, Lau EH, Yang J, Zheng J, Qin Y, Li Z, Leung GM, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2016). Human Infection with Influenza A(H7N9) Virus during 3 Major Epidemic Waves, China, 2013-2015. Emerging infectious diseases, 22(6)

Tsang TK, Lau LLH, Cauchemez S, Cowling BJ. (2016). Household Transmission of Influenza Virus. Trends in microbiology, 24(2)

Virlogeux V, Park M, Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2016). Association between Severity of MERS-CoV Infection and Incubation Period. Emerging infectious diseases, 22(3)

Lang BH, Zhi H, Cowling BJ. (2016). Assessing perioperative body weight changes in patients thyroidectomized for a benign nontoxic nodular goitre. Clinical endocrinology, 84(6)

Cowling BJ, Park M, Fang VJ, Wu P, Leung GM, Wu JT. (2015). Preliminary epidemiological assessment of MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea, May to June 2015. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 20(25)

Wong JY, Kelly H, Cheung CM, Shiu EY, Wu P, Ni MY, Ip DK, Cowling BJ. (2015). Hospitalization Fatality Risk of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American journal of epidemiology, 182(4)

Virlogeux V, Li M, Tsang TK, Feng L, Fang VJ, Jiang H, Wu P, Zheng J, Lau EH, Cao Y, Qin Y, Liao Q, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2015). Estimating the Distribution of the Incubation Periods of Human Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections. American journal of epidemiology, 182(8)

Xu C, Chan KH, Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Fung RO, Ip DK, Cauchemez S, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2015). Comparative Epidemiology of Influenza B Yamagata- and Victoria-Lineage Viruses in Households. American journal of epidemiology, 182(8)

Xu C, Perera RA, Chan YH, Fang VJ, Ng S, Ip DK, Kam AM, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2015). Determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Hong Kong. The British journal of nutrition, 114(1)

Cowling BJ, Yu H. (2015). Ebola: worldwide dissemination risk and response priorities. Lancet (London, England), 385(9962)

Kelly H, Cowling BJ. (2015). Influenza: the rational use of oseltamivir. Lancet (London, England), 385(9979)

Yang B, Wu P, Wu JT, Lau EH, Leung GM, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2015). Seroprevalence of Enterovirus 71 Antibody Among Children in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 34(12)

Leung NH, Xu C, Ip DK, Cowling BJ. (2015). Review Article: The Fraction of Influenza Virus Infections That Are Asymptomatic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 26(6)

Cowling BJ, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2015). Reply to Collignon et al. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 60(3)

Freeman G, Ng S, Perera RA, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2015). Multivariate analysis of factors affecting the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in school-age children. Epidemiology and infection, 143(3)

Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. (2015). Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(5)

He D, Chiu AP, Lin Q, Cowling BJ. (2015). Differences in the seasonality of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and influenza in the Middle East. International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases

Wei L, Chan KH, Ip DK, Fang VJ, Fung RO, Leung GM, Peiris MJ, Cowling BJ. (2015). Burden, seasonal pattern and symptomatology of acute respiratory illnesses with different viral aetiologies in children presenting at outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 21(9)

Virlogeux V, Fang VJ, Wu JT, Ho LM, Peiris JS, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2015). Brief Report: Incubation Period Duration and Severity of Clinical Disease Following Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 26(5)

Cheung DH, Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Xu J, Chan KH, Ip DK, Peiris JS, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2015). Association of Oseltamivir Treatment With Virus Shedding, Illness, and Household Transmission of Influenza Viruses. The Journal of infectious diseases, 212(3)

Wong JY, Wu P, Goldstein E, Lau EH, Ip DK, Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2015). Analysis of potential changes in seriousness of influenza A and B viruses in Hong Kong from 2001 to 2011. Epidemiology and infection, 143(4)

Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2015). "Crude Vaccine Effectiveness" Is a Misleading Term in Test-negative Studies of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 26(5)

Cowling BJ, Ip DK, Fang VJ, Suntarattiwong P, Olsen SJ, Levy J, Uyeki TM, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Chotpitayasunondh T, Nishiura H, Simmerman JM. (2014). Modes of transmission of influenza B virus in households. PloS one, 9(9)

Ng S, Cowling BJ. (2014). Authors reply: Station data and modelled climate data in Africa. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 19(41)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Feng S, Chan EL, Lo JY, Peiris JS, Chiu SS. (2014). The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalizations in children in Hong Kong, 2009-2013. Vaccine, 32(41)

Freeman G, Cowling BJ. (2014). Serological responses following influenza A(H7N9) virus infection. The Journal of infectious diseases, 209(12)

Schooling CM, Freeman G, Cowling BJ. (2014). Re: "Mendelian randomization and estimation of treatment efficacy for chronic diseases". The authors reply. American journal of epidemiology, 179(2)

Cowling BJ, Perera RA, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Wai W, So HC, Chu DK, Wong JY, Shiu EY, Ng S, Ip DK, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2014). Incidence of influenza virus infections in children in Hong Kong in a 3-year randomized placebo-controlled vaccine study, 2009-2012. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 59(4)

Feng L, Wu JT, Liu X, Yang P, Tsang TK, Jiang H, Wu P, Yang J, Fang VJ, Qin Y, Lau EH, Li M, Zheng J, Peng Z, Xie Y, Wang Q, Li Z, Leung GM, Gao GF, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2014). Clinical severity of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, China, 2013/14. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 19(49)

Kelly H, Cowling BJ. (2014). Evidence and policy for influenza control. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 19(27)

Liao Q, Ip DK, Tsang TK, Cao B, Jiang H, Liu F, Zheng J, Peng Z, Wu P, Huai Y, Lau EH, Feng L, Leung GM, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2014). A clinical prediction rule for diagnosing human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) in a hospital emergency department setting. BMC medicine

Ng S, Cowling BJ. (2014). Association between temperature, humidity and ebolavirus disease outbreaks in Africa, 1976 to 2014. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 19(35)

Seto WH, Li KH, Cheung CW, Ching PT, Cowling BJ. (2014). Breaking a Guinness World Record on Hand Sanitizing Relay, initiating a call for vital research in overcoming campaign fatigue for hand hygiene. F1000Research

Wu P, Fang VJ, Liao Q, Ng DM, Wu JT, Leung GM, Fielding R, Cowling BJ. (2014). Responses to threat of influenza A(H7N9) and support for live poultry markets, Hong Kong, 2013. Emerging infectious diseases, 20(5)

Sullivan SG, Feng S, Cowling BJ. (2014). Potential of the test-negative design for measuring influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review. Expert review of vaccines, 13(12)

Klick B, Nishiura H, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2014). Optimal design of studies of influenza transmission in households. II: comparison between cohort and case-ascertained studies. Epidemiology and infection, 142(4)

Wu P, Goldstein E, Ho LM, Wu JT, Tsang T, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2014). Excess mortality impact of two epidemics of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09) virus in Hong Kong. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 8(1)

Yuan J, Liao Q, Lau EH, Yang ZC, Wei X, Chen JD, Liu YH, Wang C, Tang XP, Liu YF, Leung GM, Xiao XC, Fielding R, Wang M, Cowling BJ. (2014). Early public response to influenza A(H7N9) virus, Guangzhou, China, May 30-June 7, 2013. Emerging infectious diseases, 20(7)

Wong IO, Schooling CM, Cowling BJ. (2014). Cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening and treatment for gastric cancer in Hong Kong: a decision analytic approach. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi

Ng S, Ni MY, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Chan KH, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2014). Characteristics of vaccine failures in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of inactivated influenza vaccine in children. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 33(2)

Tsang TK, Cauchemez S, Perera RA, Freeman G, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Leung GM, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2014). Association between antibody titers and protection against influenza virus infection within households. The Journal of infectious diseases, 210(5)

Nishiura H, Yen HL, Cowling BJ. (2013). Sample size considerations for one-to-one animal transmission studies of the influenza A viruses. PloS one, 8(1)

Schooling CM, Au Yeung SL, Freeman G, Cowling BJ. (2013). The effect of statins on testosterone in men and women, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC medicine

Zhou Y, Lau EH, Ip DK, Nishiura H, Leung GM, Seto WH, Cowling BJ. (2013). Years of life lost in the first wave of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Hong Kong. American journal of epidemiology, 178(8)

Cowling B, Desenclos JC, Riley S, Simonsen L, Viboud C. (2013). PLOS Currents: Outbreaks --- For findings that the world just can't wait to see. PLoS currents

Schooling CM, Freeman G, Cowling BJ. (2013). Mendelian randomization and estimation of treatment efficacy for chronic diseases. American journal of epidemiology, 177(10)

Wong JY, Wu P, Nishiura H, Goldstein E, Lau EH, Yang L, Chuang SK, Tsang T, Peiris JS, Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2013). Infection fatality risk of the pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus in Hong Kong. American journal of epidemiology, 177(8)

Lau LL, Ip DK, Nishiura H, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Peiris JS, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Heterogeneity in viral shedding among individuals with medically attended influenza A virus infection. The Journal of infectious diseases, 207(8)

Ng S, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Chan KH, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2013). Estimation of the association between antibody titers and protection against confirmed influenza virus infection in children. The Journal of infectious diseases, 208(8)

Cheng CK, Channarith H, Cowling BJ. (2013). Potential use of school absenteeism record for disease surveillance in developing countries, case study in rural Cambodia. PloS one, 8(10)

Cowling BJ, Jin L, Lau EH, Liao Q, Wu P, Jiang H, Tsang TK, Zheng J, Fang VJ, Chang Z, Ni MY, Zhang Q, Ip DK, Yu J, Li Y, Wang L, Tu W, Meng L, Wu JT, Luo H, Li Q, Shu Y, Li Z, Feng Z, Yang W, Wang Y, Leung GM, Yu H. (2013). Comparative epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China: a population-based study of laboratory-confirmed cases. Lancet (London, England), 382(9887)

Ng S, Ip DK, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Chiu SS, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2013). The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children. PloS one, 8(3)

Cowling BJ, Freeman G, Wong JY, Wu P, Liao Q, Lau EH, Wu JT, Fielding R, Leung GM. (2013). Preliminary inferences on the age-specific seriousness of human disease caused by avian influenza A(H7N9) infections in China, March to April 2013. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 18(19)

Klick B, Durrani S, Chan KH, Ip DK, Chou ES, Kwok HK, Ng S, Chiu SS, Peiris JS, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Live attenuated seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine in school-age children: a randomized controlled trial. Vaccine, 31(15)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Peiris JS, Riley S, Leung GM. (2013). Viral shedding, clinical history and transmission of influenza. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi

Schooling CM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular events. Nature reviews. Endocrinology, 9(7)

Cowling BJ, Ho LM, Riley S, Leung GM. (2013). Statistical algorithms for early detection of the annual influenza peak season in Hong Kong using sentinel surveillance data. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi

Ng GK, Leung GK, Johnston JM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Factors affecting implementation of accreditation programmes and the impact of the accreditation process on quality improvement in hospitals: a SWOT analysis. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, 19(5)

Kelly H, Cowling BJ. (2013). Case fatality: rate, ratio, or risk?. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 24(4)

Wong JY, Kelly H, Ip DK, Wu JT, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Case fatality risk of influenza A (H1N1pdm09): a systematic review. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 24(6)

Lau EH, Cheng CK, Ip DK, Cowling BJ. (2012). Situational awareness of influenza activity based on multiple streams of surveillance data using multivariate dynamic linear model. PloS one, 7(5)

Ip DK, Schutten M, Fang VJ, Fung RO, Dutkowski RT, Chan KH, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2012). Validation of self-swab for virologic confirmation of influenza virus infections in a community setting. The Journal of infectious diseases, 205(4)

Wu P, Goldstein E, Ho LM, Yang L, Nishiura H, Wu JT, Ip DK, Chuang SK, Tsang T, Cowling BJ. (2012). Excess mortality associated with influenza A and B virus in Hong Kong, 1998-2009. The Journal of infectious diseases, 206(12)

Klick B, Nishiura H, Cowling BJ. (2012). Optimal design of intervention studies to prevent influenza in healthy cohorts. PloS one, 7(4)

Kelly H, Mercer G, Cowling BJ. (2012). The association of seasonal influenza vaccination with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection. Vaccine, 30(12)

Cowling BJ, Nishiura H. (2012). Virus interference and estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness from test-negative studies. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(6)

Riley S, Leung GM, Ho LM, Cowling BJ. (2012). Transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in Hong Kong. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi

Riley R, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2012). Public health interventions to control the spread of a directly transmitted human pathogen within and between Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi

Cowling BJ, Ng S, Ma ES, Fang VJ, So HC, Wai W, Cheng CK, Wong JY, Chan KH, Ip DK, Chiu SS, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2012). Protective efficacy against pandemic influenza of seasonal influenza vaccination in children in Hong Kong: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 55(5)

Klick B, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2012). Optimal design of studies of influenza transmission in households. I: case-ascertained studies. Epidemiology and infection, 140(1)

Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Nishiura H, Chan KH, Ng S, Ip DK, Chiu SS, Leung GM, Peiris JS. (2012). Increased risk of noninfluenza respiratory virus infections associated with receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 54(12)

Ng S, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Chiu SS, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2012). Humoral antibody response after receipt of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccinations one year apart in children. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 31(9)

Lau LL, Nishiura H, Kelly H, Ip DK, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2012). Household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(4)

Cowling BJ. (2012). Airborne transmission of influenza: implications for control in healthcare and community settings. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 54(11)

Ng S, Wu P, Nishiura H, Ip DK, Lee ES, Cowling BJ. (2011). An analysis of national target groups for monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine and trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in 2009-10 and 2010-11. BMC infectious diseases

Warren-Gash C, Bhaskaran K, Hayward A, Leung GM, Lo SV, Wong CM, Ellis J, Pebody R, Smeeth L, Cowling BJ. (2011). Circulating influenza virus, climatic factors, and acute myocardial infarction: a time series study in England and Wales and Hong Kong. The Journal of infectious diseases, 203(12)

Zhou Y, Ng DM, Seto WH, Ip DK, Kwok HK, Ma ES, Ng S, Lau LL, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2011). Seroprevalence of pandemic H1N1 antibody among health care workers in Hong Kong following receipt of monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. PloS one, 6(11)

Kelly H, Peck HA, Laurie KL, Wu P, Nishiura H, Cowling BJ. (2011). The age-specific cumulative incidence of infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 was similar in various countries prior to vaccination. PloS one, 6(8)

Poon LL, Chan KH, Chu DK, Fung CC, Cheng CK, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2011). Viral genetic sequence variations in pandemic H1N1/2009 and seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses within an individual, a household and a community. Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 52(2)

Klick B, Nishiura H, Ng S, Fang VJ, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2011). Transmissibility of seasonal and pandemic influenza in a cohort of households in Hong Kong in 2009. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 22(6)

Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2011). The use of mathematical models to inform influenza pandemic preparedness and response. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 236(8)

Zhou Y, Ng DM, Seto WH, Ip DK, Kwok HK, Ma ES, Ng S, Lau LL, Wu JT, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2011). Seroprevalence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 among healthcare workers after the first wave in Hong Kong. The Journal of hospital infection, 78(4)

Cowling BJ, Lau LL, Wu P, Wong HW, Fang VJ, Riley S, Nishiura H. (2010). Entry screening to delay local transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). BMC infectious diseases

Nishiura H, Cook AR, Cowling BJ. (2010). Assortativity and the Probability of Epidemic Extinction: A Case Study of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009). Interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases

Cowling BJ, Ng S, Ma ES, Cheng CK, Wai W, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Ip DK, Chiu SS, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2010). Protective efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination against seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infection during 2009 in Hong Kong. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 51(12)

Cowling BJ, Ng DM, Ip DK, Liao Q, Lam WW, Wu JT, Lau JT, Griffiths SM, Fielding R. (2010). Community psychological and behavioral responses through the first wave of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Hong Kong. The Journal of infectious diseases, 202(6)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, Lau LLH, So HC, Fung ROP, Ma ESK, Kwong ASK, Chan CW, Tsui WWS, Ngai HY, Chu DWS, Lee PWY, Chiu MC, Leung GM, Peiris JSM. (2010). Comparative epidemiology of pandemic and seasonal influenza A in households. The New England journal of medicine, 362(23)

Cowling BJ, Lau MS, Ho LM, Chuang SK, Tsang T, Liu SH, Leung PY, Lo SV, Lau EH. (2010). The effective reproduction number of pandemic influenza: prospective estimation. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 21(6)

Cowling BJ, Leung GM. (2010). Simple physical interventions such as hand washing and wearing masks can reduce spread of respiratory viruses. Evidence-based medicine, 15(1)

Lang BH, Lo CY, Wong IO, Cowling BJ. (2010). Impact of second primary malignancy on outcomes of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgery, 148(6)

Cowling BJ, Zhou Y, Ip DK, Leung GM, Aiello AE. (2010). Face masks to prevent transmission of influenza virus: a systematic review. Epidemiology and infection, 138(4)

Cheng CK, Lau EH, Ip DK, Yeung AS, Ho LM, Cowling BJ. (2009). A profile of the online dissemination of national influenza surveillance data. BMC public health

Cowling BJ, Leung GM, Seto WH. (2009). Hand hygiene and virus transmission. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, 181(10)

Cowling BJ, Ng S, Longini IM Jr.. (2009). A/H1N1 flu pandemic. Antiviral drugs: distinguish treatment from prophylaxis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, Cheng CK, Fung RO, Wai W, Sin J, Seto WH, Yung R, Chu DW, Chiu BC, Lee PW, Chiu MC, Lee HC, Uyeki TM, Houck PM, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2009). Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 151(7)

Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Riley S, Malik Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2009). Estimation of the serial interval of influenza. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 20(3)

Cowling BJ, Fung RO, Cheng CK, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Seto WH, Yung R, Chiu B, Lee P, Uyeki TM, Houck PM, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2008). Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households. PloS one, 3(5)

Cowling BJ, Lau EH, Lam CL, Cheng CK, Kovar J, Chan KH, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2008). Effects of school closures, 2008 winter influenza season, Hong Kong. Emerging infectious diseases, 14(10)

Cowling BJ, Ho LM, Leung GM. (2008). Effectiveness of control measures during the SARS epidemic in Beijing: a comparison of the Rt curve and the epidemic curve. Epidemiology and infection, 136(4)

Cowling BJ, Shaw JE, Hutton JL, Marson AG. (2007). New statistical method for analyzing time to first seizure: example using data comparing carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy. Epilepsia, 48(6)

Cowling BJ, Muller MP, Wong IO, Ho LM, Louie M, McGeer A, Leung GM. (2007). Alternative methods of estimating an incubation distribution: examples from severe acute respiratory syndrome. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 18(2)

Hui LL, Hedley AJ, Nelson EA, Malisch R, Wong TW, Cowling BJ. (2007). Agreement between breast milk dioxin levels by CALUX bioassay and chemical analysis in a population survey in Hong Kong. Chemosphere, 69(8)

Cowling BJ, Muller MP, Wong IO, Ho LM, Lo SV, Tsang T, Lam TH, Louie M, Leung GM. (2006). Clinical prognostic rules for severe acute respiratory syndrome in low- and high-resource settings. Archives of internal medicine, 166(14)

Cowling BJ, Wong IO, Ho LM, Riley S, Leung GM. (2006). Methods for monitoring influenza surveillance data. International journal of epidemiology, 35(5)

Cowling BJ, Hedley AJ. (2005). Was Rodney Ledward a statistical outlier? Statistical method may be difficult to apply in clinical practice. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 330(7505)