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Ben Cowling

Professor and Head

Education

Affiliations

Projects

MIDAS CENTER FOR COMMUNICABLE DISEASE DYNAMICS

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of General Medical Sciences
People: Laura White, Ted Cohen, William Hanage, Rene Niehus, Ben Cowling, Tyler Brown, Joseph Wu, Mauricio Santillana Guzman, Joseph Lewnard, Aimee Taylor, Pablo Martinez de Salazar, Lerato Magosi, Edward Goldstein, Christine Tedijanto, Tigist Menkir, Sze Man Leung, Hsiao-Han Chang, Caroline Buckee, Pamela Martinez, Marc Lipsitch
2009 – 2020

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Papers

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, Ren R, Leung KSM, Lau EHY, Wong JY, Xing X, Xiang N, Wu Y, Li C, Chen Q, Li D, Liu T, Zhao J, Li M, Tu W, Chen C, Jin L, Yang R, Wang Q, Zhou S, Wang R, Liu H, Luo Y, Liu Y, Shao G, Li H, Tao Z, Yang Y, Deng Z, Liu B, Ma Z, Zhang Y, Shi G, Lam TTY, Wu JTK, Gao GF, Cowling BJ, Yang B, Leung GM, Feng Z. (2020). Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. The New England journal of medicine

Du Z, Xu X, Wang L, Fox SJ, Cowling BJ, Galvani AP, Meyers LA. (2020). Proactive social distancing mitigates COVID-19 outbreaks within a month across 58 mainland China cities. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences

Du Z, Xu X, Wu Y, Wang L, Cowling BJ, Meyers LA. (2020). COVID-19 serial interval estimates based on confirmed cases in public reports from 86 Chinese cities. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences

Zhang Q, Feng S, Wong IOL, Ip DKM, Cowling BJ, Lau EHY. (2020). A population-based study on healthcare-seeking behaviour of persons with symptoms of respiratory and gastrointestinal-related infections in Hong Kong. BMC public health, 20(1)

Ofori SK, Hung YW, Schwind JS, Muniz-Rodriguez K, Kakou RJ, Alade SE, Diallo K, Sullivan KL, Cowling BJ, Fung ICH. (2020). The use of digital technology to improve and monitor handwashing among children 12 years or younger in educational settings: a scoping review. International journal of environmental health research

Shiu EYC, Huang W, Ye D, Xie Y, Mo J, Li Y, Cowling BJ, Yang Z, Leung NHL. (2020). Frequent recovery of influenza A but not influenza B virus RNA in aerosols in pediatric patient rooms. Indoor air

Zhang J, Litvinova M, Wang W, Wang Y, Deng X, Chen X, Li M, Zheng W, Yi L, Chen X, Wu Q, Liang Y, Wang X, Yang J, Sun K, Longini IM Jr., Halloran ME, Wu P, Cowling BJ, Merler S, Viboud C, Vespignani A, Ajelli M, Yu H. (2020). Evolving epidemiology of novel coronavirus diseases 2019 and possible interruption of local transmission outside Hubei Province in China: a descriptive and modeling study. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences

Tsang TK, Wu P, Lin Y, Lau EHY, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2020). Effect of changing case definitions for COVID-19 on the epidemic curve and transmission parameters in mainland China: a modelling study. The Lancet. Public health

Feng S, Shen C, Xia N, Song W, Fan M, Cowling BJ. (2020). Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine

Cowling BJ, Aiello A. (2020). Public health measures to slow community spread of COVID-19. The Journal of infectious diseases

Du Z, Xu X, Wu Y, Wang L, Cowling BJ, Meyers LA. (2020). Serial Interval of COVID-19 among Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(6)

Xu XK, Liu XF, Wu Y, Ali ST, Du Z, Bosetti P, Lau EHY, Cowling BJ, Wang L. (2020). Reconstruction of Transmission Pairs for novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in mainland China: Estimation of Super-spreading Events, Serial Interval, and Hazard of Infection. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Du Z, Wang L, Cauchemez S, Xu X, Wang X, Cowling BJ, Meyers LA. (2020). Risk for Transportation of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) from Wuhan to Cities in China. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences

Cowling BJ, Ali ST, Ng TWY, Tsang TK, Li JCM, Fong MW, Liao Q, Kwan MY, Lee SL, Chiu SS, Wu JT, Wu P, Leung GM. (2020). Impact assessment of non-pharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza in Hong Kong: an observational study. The Lancet. Public health

Fong MW, Leung NHL, Xiao J, Chu DKW, Cheng SMS, So HC, Li Y, Ip DKM, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ. (2020). Presence of influenza virus on touch-surfaces in kindergartens and primary schools. The Journal of infectious diseases

Han L, Ran J, Chan KH, Mak YW, Suen L, Cowling BJ, Yang L. (2020). Indoor environmental factors and acute respiratory illness in a prospective cohort of community-dwelling older adults. The Journal of infectious diseases

Leung GM, Cowling BJ, Wu JT. (2020). From a Sprint to a Marathon in Hong Kong. The New England journal of medicine, 382(18)

He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, Deng X, Wang J, Hao X, Lau YC, Wong JY, Guan Y, Tan X, Mo X, Chen Y, Liao B, Chen W, Hu F, Zhang Q, Zhong M, Wu Y, Zhao L, Zhang F, Cowling BJ, Li F, Leung GM. (2020). Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nature medicine

Yang W, Lau EHY, Cowling BJ. (2020). Dynamic interactions of influenza viruses in Hong Kong during 1998-2018. PLoS computational biology, 16(6)

Deng X, Yang J, Wang W, Wang X, Zhou J, Chen Z, Li J, Chen Y, Yan H, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Qiu Q, Gong H, Wei X, Wang L, Sun K, Wu P, Ajelli M, Cowling BJ, Viboud C, Yu H. (2020). Case fatality risk of the first pandemic wave of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Du Z, Wang L, Cauchemez S, Xu X, Wang X, Cowling BJ, Meyers LA. (2020). Risk for Transportation of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease from Wuhan to Other Cities in China. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(5)

Cowling BJ, Thompson MG, Ng TWY, Fang VJ, Perera RAPM, Leung NHL, Chen Y, So HC, Ip DKM, Iuliano AD. (2020). Comparative Reactogenicity of Enhanced Influenza Vaccines in Older Adults. The Journal of infectious diseases

Cowling BJ, Leung GM. (2020). Epidemiological research priorities for public health control of the ongoing global novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin

Chui CSL, Cowling BJ, Lim WW, Hui CKM, Chan EW, Wong ICK, Wu P. (2020). Patterns of Inpatient Antibiotic Use Among Public Hospitals in Hong Kong from 2000 to 2015. Drug safety

Liu W, Zhang Q, Chen J, Xiang R, Song H, Shu S, Chen L, Liang L, Zhou J, You L, Wu P, Zhang B, Lu Y, Xia L, Huang L, Yang Y, Liu F, Semple MG, Cowling BJ, Lan K, Sun Z, Yu H, Liu Y. (2020). Detection of Covid-19 in Children in Early January 2020 in Wuhan, China. The New England journal of medicine

Ryu S, Ali ST, Cowling BJ, Lau EHY. (2020). Effects of school holidays on seasonal influenza in South Korea, 2014-2016. The Journal of infectious diseases

Philippon DAM, Wu P, Cowling BJ, Lau EHY. (2020). Avian influenza human infections at the human-animal interface. The Journal of infectious diseases

Leong NKC, Chu DKW, Chu JTS, Tam YH, Ip DKM, Cowling BJ, Poon LLM. (2020). A six-plex droplet digital RT-PCR assay for seasonal influenza virus typing, subtyping, and lineage determination. Influenza and other respiratory viruses

Du Z, Xu X, Wang L, Fox SJ, Cowling BJ, Galvani AP, Meyers LA. (2020). Effects of Proactive Social Distancing on COVID-19 Outbreaks in 58 Cities, China. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(9)

Liao Q, Ng TWY, Cowling BJ. (2020). What influenza vaccination programmes are preferred by healthcare personnel? A discrete choice experiment. Vaccine

Fong MW, Gao H, Wong JY, Xiao J, Shiu EYC, Ryu S, Cowling BJ. (2020). Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-Social Distancing Measures. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(5)

Xiao J, Shiu EYC, Gao H, Wong JY, Fong MW, Ryu S, Cowling BJ. (2020). Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-Personal Protective and Environmental Measures. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(5)

Ryu S, Gao H, Wong JY, Shiu EYC, Xiao J, Fong MW, Cowling BJ. (2020). Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-International Travel-Related Measures. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(5)

Wang W, Artois J, Wang X, Kucharski AJ, Pei Y, Tong X, Virlogeux V, Wu P, Cowling BJ, Gilbert M, Yu H. (2020). Effectiveness of Live Poultry Market Interventions on Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(5)

Phelps PO, Abariga SA, Cowling BJ, Selva D, Marcet MM. (2020). Antimetabolites as an adjunct to dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (4)

Xu X, Liu X, Wang L, Ali ST, Du Z, Bosetti P, Cowling BJ, Wu Y. (2020). Household transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in the time of unprecedented travel lockdown in China. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences

Leung NHL, Chu DKW, Shiu EYC, Chan KH, McDevitt JJ, Hau BJP, Yen HL, Li Y, Ip DKM, Peiris JSM, Seto WH, Leung GM, Milton DK, Cowling BJ. (2020). Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nature medicine

Kavian N, Hachim A, Li AP, Cohen CA, Chin AW, Poon LL, Fang VJ, Leung NH, Cowling BJ, Valkenburg SA. (2020). Assessment of enhanced influenza vaccination finds that FluAd conveys an advantage in mice and older adults. Clinical & translational immunology, 9(2)

Tso RV, Cowling BJ. (2020). Importance of face masks for COVID-19 - a call for effective public education. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Zhang J, Litvinova M, Wang W, Wang Y, Deng X, Chen X, Li M, Zheng W, Yi L, Chen X, Wu Q, Liang Y, Wang X, Yang J, Sun K, Longini IM Jr., Halloran ME, Wu P, Cowling BJ, Merler S, Viboud C, Vespignani A, Ajelli M, Yu H. (2020). Evolving epidemiology and transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 outside Hubei province, China: a descriptive and modelling study. The Lancet. Infectious diseases

Ryu S, Ali ST, Jang C, Kim B, Cowling BJ. (2020). Effect of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions on Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, South Korea, 2020. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(10)

Du Z, Cowling BJ, Meyers LA. (2020). Using the COVID-19 to influenza ratio to estimate the numbers of symptomatic COVID-19 cases in Wuhan prior to the lockdown. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences

Hu YJ, Cowling BJ. (2020). Reducing antibiotic use in livestock, China. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 98(5)

Wu P, Hao X, Lau EHY, Wong JY, Leung KSM, Wu JT, Cowling BJ, Leung GM. (2020). Real-time tentative assessment of the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus infections in Wuhan, China, as at 22 January 2020. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 25(3)

Liu Jingyuan, Liu Yao, Xiang Pan, Pu Lin, Xiong Haofeng, Li Chuansheng, Zhang Ming, Tan Jianbo, Xu Yanli, Song Rui, Song Meihua, Wang Lin, Zhang Wei, Han Bing, Yang Li, Wang Xiaojing, Zhou Guiqin, Zhang Ting, Li Ben, Wang Yanbin, Chen Zhihai, Wang Xianbo. (2020). Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Severe Illness Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the Early Stage. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

Wu JT, Leung K, Bushman M, Kishore N, Niehus R, de Salazar PM, Cowling BJ, Lipsitch M, Leung GM. (2020). Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China. Nature medicine, 26(4)

Lewnard JA, Tedijanto C, Cowling BJ, Lipsitch M. (2019). THE AUTHORS REPLY. American journal of epidemiology, 188(4)

Cowling BJ, Perera RAPM, Fang VJ, Chu DKW, Hui APW, Yeung APC, Peiris JSM, Wong WHS, Chan ELY, Chiu SS. (2019). Maternal antibodies against influenza in cord blood and protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Feng L, Feng S, Chen T, Yang J, Lau YC, Peng Z, Li L, Wang X, Wong JYT, Qin Y, Bond HS, Zhang J, Fang VJ, Zheng J, Yang J, Wu P, Jiang H, He Y, Cowling BJ, Yu H, Shu Y, Lau EHY. (2019). Burden of influenza-associated outpatient influenza-like illness consultations in China, 2006-2015: A population-based study. Influenza and other respiratory viruses

Shiu EYC, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. (2019). Controversy around airborne versus droplet transmission of respiratory viruses: implication for infection prevention. Current opinion in infectious diseases

Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2019). Remaining challenges for prevention and control of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The Lancet. Child & adolescent health, 3(6)

Valkenburg SA, Cowling BJ. (2019). Turning influenza vaccinology on its head to reveal the stalk. The Lancet. Infectious diseases

Cowling BJ, Perera RAPM, Valkenburg SA, Leung NHL, Iuliano AD, Tam YH, Wong JHF, Fang VJ, Li APY, So HC, Ip DKM, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Fry AM, Levine MZ, Gangappa S, Sambhara S, Barr IG, Skowronski DM, Peiris JSM, Thompson MG. (2019). Comparative Immunogenicity of Several Enhanced Influenza Vaccine Options for Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Chua H, Chiu SS, Chan ELY, Feng S, Kwan MYW, Wong JSC, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ. (2019). Effectiveness of Partial and Full Influenza Vaccination Among Children Aged <9 Years in Hong Kong, 2011-2019. The Journal of infectious diseases, 220(10)

Chua H, Feng S, Lewnard JA, Sullivan SG, Blyth CC, Lipsitch M, Cowling BJ. (2019). The use of test-negative controls to monitor vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review of methodology. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Ip DKM, Perera RAPM, So HC, Leung GM, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ, Cauchemez S. (2019). Indirect protection from vaccinating children against influenza in households. Nature communications, 10(1)

Lim WW, Leung NHL, Sullivan SG, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cowling BJ. (2019). Distinguishing Causation from Correlation in the Use of Correlates of Protection to Evaluate and Develop Influenza Vaccines. American journal of epidemiology

Ranjeva S, Subramanian R, Fang VJ, Leung GM, Ip DKM, Perera RAPM, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ, Cobey S. (2019). Age-specific differences in the dynamics of protective immunity to influenza. Nature communications, 10(1), https://github.com/cobeylab/Influenza-immune-dynamics/tree/master/Data

Ng TWY, Perera RAPM, Fang VJ, Yau EM, Peiris JSM, Tam YH, Cowling BJ. (2019). The effect of influenza vaccination history on changes in hemagglutination inhibition titers following receipt of the 2015/16 influenza vaccine in older adults in Hong Kong. The Journal of infectious diseases

Shiu EYC, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. (2019). Controversy around airborne versus droplet transmission of respiratory viruses: implication for infection prevention. Current opinion in infectious diseases, 32(4)

Chiu SS, Kwan MY, Feng S, Chan EL, Chua H, Wong JS, Peiris JM, Cowling BJ. (2019). Early season estimate of influenza vaccination effectiveness against influenza hospitalisation in children, Hong Kong, winter influenza season 2018/19. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 24(5)

Ryu S, Cowling BJ, Wu P, Olesen S, Fraser C, Sun DS, Lipsitch M, Grad YH. (2019). Case-based surveillance of antimicrobial resistance with full susceptibility profiles. JAC-antimicrobial resistance, 1(3)

Lim WW, Wu P, Bond HS, Wong JY, Ni K, Seto WH, Jit M, Cowling BJ. (2019). Determinants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in the Asia-Pacific region: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of global antimicrobial resistance, (16)

Yang B, Lau EHY, Cowling BJ. (2019). Estimating the Severity Profile of Enterovirus A71 Infections in Children: A Bayesian Synthesis Framework. American journal of epidemiology, 188(2)

Wei VWI, Wong JYT, Perera RAPM, Kwok KO, Fang VJ, Barr IG, Peiris JSM, Riley S, Cowling BJ. (2018). Incidence of influenza A(H3N2) virus infections in Hong Kong in a longitudinal sero-epidemiological study, 2009-2015. PloS one, 13(5)

Ali ST, Wu P, Cauchemez S, He D, Fang VJ, Cowling BJ, Tian L. (2018). Ambient ozone and influenza transmissibility in Hong Kong. The European respiratory journal, 51(5)

Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2018). Real-time forecasting of infectious disease epidemics. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, 24 Suppl 6(5)

Ali ST, Cowling BJ, Lau EHY, Fang VJ, Leung GM. (2018). Mitigation of Influenza B Epidemic with School Closures, Hong Kong, 2018. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(11)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Peiris JS. (2018). Influenza-like illness and viral aetiology in Hong Kong children. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, 24 Suppl 6(5)

Cowling BJ, Chui CSL, Lim WW, Wu P, Hui CKM, Peiris JSM, Chan EW. (2018). Use of influenza antivirals in patients hospitalized in Hong Kong, 2000-2015. PloS one, 13(1)

Gordon A, Tsang TK, Cowling BJ, Kuan G, Ojeda S, Sanchez N, Gresh L, López R, Balmaseda A, Harris E. (2018). Influenza Transmission Dynamics in Urban Households, Managua, Nicaragua, 2012-2014. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(10)

Li Y, Chang Z, Wu P, Liao Q, Liu F, Zheng Y, Luo L, Zhou Y, Chen Q, Yu S, Guo C, Chen Z, Long L, Zhao S, Yang B, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2018). Emerging Enteroviruses Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, China, 2010-2016. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(10)

Yang J, Lau YC, Wu P, Feng L, Wang X, Chen T, Ali ST, Peng Z, Fang VJ, Zhang J, He Y, Lau EHY, Qin Y, Yang J, Zheng J, Jiang H, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2018). Variation in Influenza B Virus Epidemiology by Lineage, China. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(8)

Lee CF, Cowling BJ, Feng S, Aso H, Wu P, Fukuda K, Seto WH. (2018). Impact of antibiotic stewardship programmes in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 73(4)

Feng S, Chiu SS, Chan ELY, Kwan MYW, Wong JSC, Leung CW, Chung Lau Y, Sullivan SG, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2018). Effectiveness of influenza vaccination on influenza-associated hospitalisations over time among children in Hong Kong: a test-negative case-control study. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine, 6(12)

Cowling BJ, Sullivan SG. (2019). The Value of Neuraminidase Inhibition Antibody Titers in Influenza Seroepidemiology. The Journal of infectious diseases, 219(3)

Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2019). Reconciling estimates of the global influenza burden. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine, 7(1)

Ng TWY, Cowling BJ, Gao HZ, Thompson MG. (2019). Comparative Immunogenicity of Enhanced Seasonal Influenza Vaccines in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The Journal of infectious diseases, 219(10)

Cowling BJ, Lim WW, Perera RAPM, Fang VJ, Leung GM, Peiris JSM, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ. (2019). Influenza Hemagglutination-inhibition Antibody Titer as a Mediator of Vaccine-induced Protection for Influenza B. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 68(10)

Virlogeux V, Feng L, Tsang TK, Jiang H, Fang VJ, Qin Y, Wu P, Wang X, Zheng J, Lau EHY, Peng Z, Yang J, Cowling BJ, Yu H. (2018). Evaluation of animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus in China, 2013-15. Scientific reports, 8(1)

Wang X, Wu P, Pei Y, Tsang TK, Gu D, Wang W, Zhang J, Horby PW, Uyeki TM, Cowling BJ, Yu H. (2019). Assessment of Human-to-Human Transmissibility of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Across 5 Waves by Analyzing Clusters of Case Patients in Mainland China, 2013-2017. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 68(4)

Valkenburg SA, Leung NHL, Bull MB, Yan LM, Li APY, Poon LLM, Cowling BJ. (2018). The Hurdles From Bench to Bedside in the Realization and Implementation of a Universal Influenza Vaccine. Frontiers in immunology, (9)

Kwok KO, Cowling B, Wei V, Riley S, Read JM. (2018). Temporal variation of human encounters and the number of locations in which they occur: a longitudinal study of Hong Kong residents. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 15(138)

Bing-Yuan, Zhang YH, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ, Yang ZF. (2018). Role of viral bioaerosols in nosocomial infections and measures for prevention and control. Journal of aerosol science, (117)

Chiu SS, Kwan MYW, Feng S, Wong JSC, Leung CW, Chan ELY, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ. (2018). Interim estimate of influenza vaccine effectiveness in hospitalised children, Hong Kong, 2017/18. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 23(8)

Cowling BJ, Chiu SS. (2018). Efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in young children. The Lancet. Child & adolescent health, 2(5)

Cowling BJ, Sullivan SG. (2018). A concern over terminology in vaccine effectiveness studies. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 23(10)

Yang Z, Zhang Q, Cowling BJ, Lau EHY. (2017). Estimating the incubation period of hand, foot and mouth disease for children in different age groups. Scientific reports, 7(1)

Tam YH, Valkenburg SA, Perera RAPM, Wong JHF, Fang VJ, Ng TWY, Kwong ASK, Tsui WWS, Ip DKM, Poon LLM, Chau CKV, Barr IG, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ. (2018). Immune Responses to Twice-Annual Influenza Vaccination in Older Adults in Hong Kong. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 66(6)

Feng S, Cowling BJ, Kelly H, Sullivan SG. (2018). Estimating Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness With the Test-Negative Design Using Alternative Control Groups: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American journal of epidemiology, 187(2)

Lee CF, Cowling BJ, Lau EHY. (2017). Epidemiology of Reemerging Scarlet Fever, Hong Kong, 2005-2015. Emerging infectious diseases, 23(10)

Wu P, Presanis AM, Bond HS, Lau EHY, Fang VJ, Cowling BJ. (2017). A joint analysis of influenza-associated hospitalizations and mortality in Hong Kong, 1998-2013. Scientific reports, 7(1)

Iuliano AD, Roguski KM, Chang HH, Muscatello DJ, Palekar R, Tempia S, Cohen C, Gran JM, Schanzer D, Cowling BJ, Wu P, Kyncl J, Ang LW, Park M, Redlberger-Fritz M, Yu H, Espenhain L, Krishnan A, Emukule G, van Asten L, Pereira da Silva S, Aungkulanon S, Buchholz U, Widdowson MA, Bresee JS, . (2018). Estimates of global seasonal influenza-associated respiratory mortality: a modelling study. Lancet, 391(10127)

Ren X, Wu P, Wang L, Geng M, Zeng L, Zhang J, Xia N, Lai S, Dalton HR, Cowling BJ, Yu H. (2017). Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990-2014. Emerging infectious diseases, 23(2)

Jiang H, Wu P, Uyeki TM, He J, Deng Z, Xu W, Lv Q, Zhang J, Wu Y, Tsang TK, Kang M, Zheng J, Wang L, Yang B, Qin Y, Feng L, Fang VJ, Gao GF, Leung GM, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2017). Preliminary Epidemiologic Assessment of Human Infections With Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, China. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 65(3)

Cowling BJ, Caini S, Chotpitayasunondh T, Djauzi S, Gatchalian SR, Huang QS, Koul PA, Lee PI, Muttalif AR, Plotkin S, . (2017). Influenza in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Influenza Initiative. Vaccine, 35(6)

Kwok KO, Riley S, Perera RAPM, Wei VWI, Wu P, Wei L, Chu DKW, Barr IG, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2017). Relative incidence and individual-level severity of seasonal influenza A H3N2 compared with 2009 pandemic H1N1. BMC infectious diseases, 17(1)

Cowling BJ, Wu P, Lo JYC, Chan KH, Chan ELY, Fang VJ, So LY, Peiris JSM, Chiu SS. (2017). Population-Based Pediatric Hospitalization Burden of Lineage-Specific Influenza B in Hong Kong, 2004-2014. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 65(2)

Li L, Wong JY, Wu P, Bond HS, Lau EHY, Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2018). Heterogeneity in Estimates of the Impact of Influenza on Population Mortality: A Systematic Review. American journal of epidemiology, 187(2)

Wang X, Jiang H, Wu P, Uyeki TM, Feng L, Lai S, Wang L, Huo X, Xu K, Chen E, Wang X, He J, Kang M, Zhang R, Zhang J, Wu J, Hu S, Zhang H, Liu X, Fu W, Ou J, Wu S, Qin Y, Zhang Z, Shi Y, Zhang J, Artois J, Fang VJ, Zhu H, Guan Y, Gilbert M, Horby PW, Leung GM, Gao GF, Cowling BJ, Yu H. (2017). Epidemiology of avian influenza A H7N9 virus in human beings across five epidemics in mainland China, 2013-17: an epidemiological study of laboratory-confirmed case series. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 17(8)

Baudon E, Peyre M, Peiris M, Cowling BJ. (2017). Epidemiological features of influenza circulation in swine populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 12(6)

Ip DK, Lau EH, So HC, Xiao J, Lam CK, Fang VJ, Tam YH, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2017). A Smart Card-Based Electronic School Absenteeism System for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Hong Kong: Design, Implementation, and Feasibility Assessment. JMIR public health and surveillance, 3(4)

Zhang H, Xiong Q, Wu P, Chen Y, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. (2018). Influenza-associated mortality in Yancheng, China, 2011-15. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 12(1)

Cowling BJ, Xu C, Tang F, Zhang J, Shen J, Havers F, Wendladt R, Leung NH, Greene C, Iuliano AD, Shifflett P, Song Y, Zhang R, Kim L, Chen Y, Chu DK, Zhu H, Shu Y, Yu H, Thompson MG, . (2017). Cohort profile: the China Ageing REespiratory infections Study (CARES), a prospective cohort study in older adults in Eastern China. BMJ open, 7(10)

Feng S, Fowlkes AL, Steffens A, Finelli L, Cowling BJ. (2017). Assessment of Virus Interference in a Test-negative Study of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 28(4)

Qin Y, Zhang Y, Wu P, Feng S, Zheng J, Yang P, Pan Y, Wang Q, Feng L, Pang X, Puig-Barberà J, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2016). Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalization among Beijing residents in China, 2013-15. Vaccine, 34(20)

Wong JY, Wu P, Lau EH, Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Ho LM, Cowling BJ. (2016). Real-time estimation of the hospitalization fatality risk of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Hong Kong. Epidemiology and infection, 144(8)

Freeman G, Perera RA, Ngan E, Fang VJ, Cauchemez S, Ip DK, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2016). Quantifying homologous and heterologous antibody titre rises after influenza virus infection. Epidemiology and infection, 144(11)

Feng S, Cowling BJ, Sullivan SG. (2016). Influenza vaccine effectiveness by test-negative design - Comparison of inpatient and outpatient settings. Vaccine, 34(14)

Ip DK, Lau LL, Leung NH, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Chu DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Uyeki TM, Cowling BJ. (2017). Viral Shedding and Transmission Potential of Asymptomatic and Paucisymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections in the Community. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 64(6)

Lai S, Qin Y, Cowling BJ, Ren X, Wardrop NA, Gilbert M, Tsang TK, Wu P, Feng L, Jiang H, Peng Z, Zheng J, Liao Q, Li S, Horby PW, Farrar JJ, Gao GF, Tatem AJ, Yu H. (2016). Global epidemiology of avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in humans, 1997-2015: a systematic review of individual case data. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 16(7)

Virlogeux V, Fang VJ, Park M, Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2016). Comparison of incubation period distribution of human infections with MERS-CoV in South Korea and Saudi Arabia. Scientific reports, (6)

Cowling BJ, Leung GM. (2016). Effectiveness of an internet-delivered handwashing intervention. Lancet, 387(10016)

Cowling BJ, Kwan MY, Wong JS, Feng S, Leung CW, Chan EL, Chan KH, Ng TK, To WK, Peiris MJ, Chiu SS. (2017). Interim estimates of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against influenza-associated hospitalization in children in Hong Kong, 2015-16. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 11(1)

Virlogeux V, Park M, Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2016). Association between Severity of MERS-CoV Infection and Incubation Period. Emerging infectious diseases, 22(3)

Wu P, Peng Z, Fang VJ, Feng L, Tsang TK, Jiang H, Lau EH, Yang J, Zheng J, Qin Y, Li Z, Leung GM, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2016). Human Infection with Influenza A(H7N9) Virus during 3 Major Epidemic Waves, China, 2013-2015. Emerging infectious diseases, 22(6)

Virlogeux V, Yang J, Fang VJ, Feng L, Tsang TK, Jiang H, Wu P, Zheng J, Lau EH, Qin Y, Peng Z, Peiris JS, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2016). Association between the Severity of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections and Length of the Incubation Period. PloS one, 11(2)

Horby PW, Laurie KL, Cowling BJ, Engelhardt OG, Sturm-Ramirez K, Sanchez JL, Katz JM, Uyeki TM, Wood J, Van Kerkhove MD, . (2017). CONSISE statement on the reporting of Seroepidemiologic Studies for influenza (ROSES-I statement): an extension of the STROBE statement. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 11(1)

Lipsitch M, Cowling BJ. (2016). Zika vaccine trials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 353(6304)

Zhang Y, Feng S, Cowling BJ. (2016). Changes in the primary outcome in Ebola vaccine trial. Lancet, 387(10027)

Yang B, Lau EH, Wu P, Cowling BJ. (2016). Transmission of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and Its Potential Driving Factors in Hong Kong. Scientific reports, (6)

Bond HS, Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2016). Regression approaches in the test-negative study design for assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness. Epidemiology and infection, 144(8)

Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ, Cauchemez S. (2016). Individual Correlates of Infectivity of Influenza A Virus Infections in Households. PLoS One, 11(5)

Leung NH, Zhou J, Chu DK, Yu H, Lindsley WG, Beezhold DH, Yen HL, Li Y, Seto WH, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2016). Quantification of Influenza Virus RNA in Aerosols in Patient Rooms. PloS one, 11(2)

Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2016). The authors reply. Epidemiology and infection, 144(12)

Sullivan SG, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cowling BJ. (2016). Theoretical Basis of the Test-Negative Study Design for Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness. American journal of epidemiology, 184(5)

Xu C, Fang VJ, Perera RA, Kam AM, Ng S, Chan YH, Chan KH, Ip DK, Peiris JM, Cowling BJ. (2016). Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Was Not Associated with Influenza Virus Infection in Children and Adults in Hong Kong, 2009-2010. The Journal of nutrition, 146(12)

Wu JT, Jit M, Zheng Y, Leung K, Xing W, Yang J, Liao Q, Cowling BJ, Yang B, Lau EH, Takahashi S, Farrar JJ, Grenfell BT, Leung GM, Yu H. (2016). Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. PLoS medicine, 13(3)

Takahashi S, Liao Q, Van Boeckel TP, Xing W, Sun J, Hsiao VY, Metcalf CJ, Chang Z, Liu F, Zhang J, Wu JT, Cowling BJ, Leung GM, Farrar JJ, van Doorn HR, Grenfell BT, Yu H. (2016). Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Modeling Epidemic Dynamics of Enterovirus Serotypes and Implications for Vaccination. PLoS medicine, 13(2)

Wu JT, Jit M, Zheng Y, Leung K, Xing W, Yang J, Liao Q, Cowling BJ, Yang B, Lau EH, Takahashi S, Farrar JJ, Grenfell BT, Leung GM, Yu H. (2016). Correction: Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. PLoS medicine, 13(4)

He D, Chiu AP, Lin Q, Cowling BJ. (2015). Differences in the seasonality of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and influenza in the Middle East. International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, (40)

Park M, Wu P, Goldstein E, Joo Kim W, Cowling BJ. (2016). Influenza-Associated Excess Mortality in South Korea. American journal of preventive medicine, 50(4)

Tsang TK, Lau LLH, Cauchemez S, Cowling BJ. (2016). Household Transmission of Influenza Virus. Trends in microbiology, 24(2)

Cowling BJ, Feng S, Finelli L, Steffens A, Fowlkes A. (2016). Assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness in a sentinel surveillance network 2010-13, United States. Vaccine, 34(1)

Liao Q, Wu P, Lam WW, Fang VJ, Wu JT, Leung GM, Fielding R, Cowling BJ. (2016). Public risk perception and attitudes towards live poultry markets before and after their closure due to influenza A(H7N9), Hong Kong, January-February 2014. Journal of public health (Oxford, England), 38(1)

Virlogeux V, Li M, Tsang TK, Feng L, Fang VJ, Jiang H, Wu P, Zheng J, Lau EH, Cao Y, Qin Y, Liao Q, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2015). Estimating the Distribution of the Incubation Periods of Human Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections. American journal of epidemiology, 182(8)

Cowling BJ, Park M, Fang VJ, Wu P, Leung GM, Wu JT. (2015). Preliminary epidemiological assessment of MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea, May to June 2015. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 20(25)

Yuan J, Lau EH, Li K, Leung YH, Yang Z, Xie C, Liu Y, Liu Y, Ma X, Liu J, Li X, Chen K, Luo L, Di B, Cowling BJ, Tang X, Leung GM, Wang M, Peiris M. (2015). Effect of Live Poultry Market Closure on Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Activity in Guangzhou, China, 2014. Emerging infectious diseases, 21(10)

Xu C, Chan KH, Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Fung RO, Ip DK, Cauchemez S, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2015). Comparative Epidemiology of Influenza B Yamagata- and Victoria-Lineage Viruses in Households. American journal of epidemiology, 182(8)

Wong JY, Wu P, Goldstein E, Lau EH, Ip DK, Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2015). Analysis of potential changes in seriousness of influenza A and B viruses in Hong Kong from 2001 to 2011. Epidemiology and infection, 143(4)

Schooling CM, Cowling BJ, Schooling CM. (2015). Type of question could inform the taxonomy of bias. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 26(4)

Lang BH, Zhi H, Cowling BJ. (2016). Assessing perioperative body weight changes in patients thyroidectomized for a benign nontoxic nodular goitre. Clinical endocrinology, 84(6)

Wong JY, Kelly H, Cheung CM, Shiu EY, Wu P, Ni MY, Ip DK, Cowling BJ. (2015). Hospitalization Fatality Risk of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American journal of epidemiology, 182(4)

Yang B, Wu P, Wu JT, Lau EH, Leung GM, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2015). Seroprevalence of Enterovirus 71 Antibody Among Children in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 34(12)

Peiris JS, Cowling BJ, Wu JT, Feng L, Guan Y, Yu H, Leung GM. (2016). Interventions to reduce zoonotic and pandemic risks from avian influenza in Asia. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 16(2)

Wu P, Wang L, Cowling BJ, Yu J, Fang VJ, Li F, Zeng L, Wu JT, Li Z, Leung GM, Yu H. (2015). Live Poultry Exposure and Public Response to Influenza A(H7N9) in Urban and Rural China during Two Epidemic Waves in 2013-2014. PloS one, 10(9)

Xu C, Perera RA, Chan YH, Fang VJ, Ng S, Ip DK, Kam AM, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2015). Determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Hong Kong. The British journal of nutrition, 114(1)

Qin Y, Horby PW, Tsang TK, Chen E, Gao L, Ou J, Nguyen TH, Duong TN, Gasimov V, Feng L, Wu P, Jiang H, Ren X, Peng Z, Li S, Li M, Zheng J, Liu S, Hu S, Hong R, Farrar JJ, Leung GM, Gao GF, Cowling BJ, Yu H. (2015). Differences in the Epidemiology of Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) Viruses Infection. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 61(4)

Cheung DH, Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Xu J, Chan KH, Ip DK, Peiris JS, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2015). Association of Oseltamivir Treatment With Virus Shedding, Illness, and Household Transmission of Influenza Viruses. The Journal of infectious diseases, 212(3)

Zhao X, Fang VJ, Ohmit SE, Monto AS, Cook AR, Cowling BJ. (2016). Quantifying Protection Against Influenza Virus Infection Measured by Hemagglutination-inhibition Assays in Vaccine Trials. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 27(1)

Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Perera RA, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cauchemez S, Cowling BJ. (2016). Interpreting Seroepidemiologic Studies of Influenza in a Context of Nonbracketing Sera. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 27(1)

Kelly H, Cowling BJ. (2015). Influenza: the rational use of oseltamivir. Lancet, 385(9979)

Wei L, Chan KH, Ip DK, Fang VJ, Fung RO, Leung GM, Peiris MJ, Cowling BJ. (2015). Burden, seasonal pattern and symptomatology of acute respiratory illnesses with different viral aetiologies in children presenting at outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 21(9)

Leung NH, Xu C, Ip DK, Cowling BJ. (2015). Review Article: The Fraction of Influenza Virus Infections That Are Asymptomatic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 26(6)

Virlogeux V, Fang VJ, Wu JT, Ho LM, Peiris JS, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2015). Brief Report: Incubation Period Duration and Severity of Clinical Disease Following Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 26(5)

Sullivan SG, Cowling BJ. (2015). "Crude Vaccine Effectiveness" Is a Misleading Term in Test-negative Studies of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 26(5)

Ip DKM, Lau LLH, Chan KH, Fang VJ, Leung GM, Peiris MJS, Cowling BJ. (2016). The Dynamic Relationship Between Clinical Symptomatology and Viral Shedding in Naturally Acquired Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Virus Infections. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 62(4)

Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. (2015). Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerging infectious diseases, 24(5)

Wang L, Cowling BJ, Wu P, Yu J, Li F, Zeng L, Wu JT, Li Z, Leung GM, Yu H. (2014). Human exposure to live poultry and psychological and behavioral responses to influenza A(H7N9), China. Emerging infectious diseases, 20(8)

Cowling BJ, Ip DK, Fang VJ, Suntarattiwong P, Olsen SJ, Levy J, Uyeki TM, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Chotpitayasunondh T, Nishiura H, Simmerman JM. (2014). Modes of transmission of influenza B virus in households. PloS one, 9(9)

Sullivan SG, Feng S, Cowling BJ. (2014). Potential of the test-negative design for measuring influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review. Expert review of vaccines, 13(12)

Tsang TK, Cauchemez S, Perera RA, Freeman G, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Leung GM, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2014). Association between antibody titers and protection against influenza virus infection within households. The Journal of infectious diseases, 210(5)

Liao Q, Cowling BJ, Lam WW, Ng DM, Fielding R. (2014). Anxiety, worry and cognitive risk estimate in relation to protective behaviors during the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong: ten cross-sectional surveys. BMC infectious diseases, (14)

Cowling BJ, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2015). Reply to Collignon et al. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 60(3)

Yuan J, Liao Q, Lau EH, Yang ZC, Wei X, Chen JD, Liu YH, Wang C, Tang XP, Liu YF, Leung GM, Xiao XC, Fielding R, Wang M, Cowling BJ. (2014). Early public response to influenza A(H7N9) virus, Guangzhou, China, May 30-June 7, 2013. Emerging infectious diseases, 20(7)

Wu P, Jiang H, Wu JT, Chen E, He J, Zhou H, Wei L, Yang J, Yang B, Qin Y, Fang VJ, Li M, Tsang TK, Zheng J, Lau EH, Cao Y, Chai C, Zhong H, Li Z, Leung GM, Feng L, Gao GF, Cowling BJ, Yu H. (2014). Poultry market closures and human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, China, 2013-14. Emerging infectious diseases, 20(11)

Wu P, Fang VJ, Liao Q, Ng DM, Wu JT, Leung GM, Fielding R, Cowling BJ. (2014). Responses to threat of influenza A(H7N9) and support for live poultry markets, Hong Kong, 2013. Emerging infectious diseases, 20(5)

Patterson-Lomba O, Van Noort S, Cowling BJ, Wallinga J, Gomes MG, Lipsitch M, Goldstein E. (2014). Utilizing syndromic surveillance data for estimating levels of influenza circulation. American journal of epidemiology, 179(11)

Cauchemez S, Van Kerkhove MD, Archer BN, Cetron M, Cowling BJ, Grove P, Hunt D, Kojouharova M, Kon P, Ungchusak K, Oshitani H, Pugliese A, Rizzo C, Saour G, Sunagawa T, Uzicanin A, Wachtel C, Weisfuse I, Yu H, Nicoll A. (2014). School closures during the 2009 influenza pandemic: national and local experiences. BMC infectious diseases, (14)

Cowling BJ, Perera RA, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Wai W, So HC, Chu DK, Wong JY, Shiu EY, Ng S, Ip DK, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2014). Incidence of influenza virus infections in children in Hong Kong in a 3-year randomized placebo-controlled vaccine study, 2009-2012. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 59(4)

Ng S, Cowling BJ. (2014). Authors reply: Station data and modelled climate data in Africa. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 19(41)

Freeman G, Cowling BJ. (2014). Serological responses following influenza A(H7N9) virus infection. The Journal of infectious diseases, 209(12)

Schooling CM, Freeman G, Cowling BJ. (2014). Re: "Mendelian randomization and estimation of treatment efficacy for chronic diseases". The authors reply. American journal of epidemiology, 179(2)

Feng L, Wu JT, Liu X, Yang P, Tsang TK, Jiang H, Wu P, Yang J, Fang VJ, Qin Y, Lau EH, Li M, Zheng J, Peng Z, Xie Y, Wang Q, Li Z, Leung GM, Gao GF, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2014). Clinical severity of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, China, 2013/14. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 19(49)

Kelly H, Cowling BJ. (2014). Evidence and policy for influenza control. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 19(27)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Feng S, Chan EL, Lo JY, Peiris JS, Chiu SS. (2014). The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalizations in children in Hong Kong, 2009-2013. Vaccine, 32(41)

Liao Q, Ip DK, Tsang TK, Cao B, Jiang H, Liu F, Zheng J, Peng Z, Wu P, Huai Y, Lau EH, Feng L, Leung GM, Yu H, Cowling BJ. (2014). A clinical prediction rule for diagnosing human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) in a hospital emergency department setting. BMC medicine, (12)

Ng S, Cowling BJ. (2014). Association between temperature, humidity and ebolavirus disease outbreaks in Africa, 1976 to 2014. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 19(35)

Freeman G, Ng S, Perera RA, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2015). Multivariate analysis of factors affecting the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in school-age children. Epidemiology and infection, 143(3)

Cowling BJ, Yu H. (2015). Ebola: worldwide dissemination risk and response priorities. Lancet, 385(9962)

Seto WH, Li KH, Cheung CW, Ching PT, Cowling BJ. (2014). Breaking a Guinness World Record on Hand Sanitizing Relay, initiating a call for vital research in overcoming campaign fatigue for hand hygiene. F1000Research, (3)

Wu P, Goldstein E, Ho LM, Wu JT, Tsang T, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2014). Excess mortality impact of two epidemics of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09) virus in Hong Kong. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 8(1)

Wong IO, Schooling CM, Cowling BJ. (2014). Cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening and treatment for gastric cancer in Hong Kong: a decision analytic approach. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, (20 Suppl 7)

Nishiura H, Yen HL, Cowling BJ. (2013). Sample size considerations for one-to-one animal transmission studies of the influenza A viruses. PloS one, 8(1)

Zhou Y, Lau EH, Ip DK, Nishiura H, Leung GM, Seto WH, Cowling BJ. (2013). Years of life lost in the first wave of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Hong Kong. American journal of epidemiology, 178(8)

Schooling CM, Au Yeung SL, Freeman G, Cowling BJ. (2013). The effect of statins on testosterone in men and women, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC medicine, (11)

Yu H, Cowling BJ, Feng L, Lau EH, Liao Q, Tsang TK, Peng Z, Wu P, Liu F, Fang VJ, Zhang H, Li M, Zeng L, Xu Z, Li Z, Luo H, Li Q, Feng Z, Cao B, Yang W, Wu JT, Wang Y, Leung GM. (2013). Human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus: an assessment of clinical severity. Lancet, 382(9887)

Cowling BJ, Jin L, Lau EH, Liao Q, Wu P, Jiang H, Tsang TK, Zheng J, Fang VJ, Chang Z, Ni MY, Zhang Q, Ip DK, Yu J, Li Y, Wang L, Tu W, Meng L, Wu JT, Luo H, Li Q, Shu Y, Li Z, Feng Z, Yang W, Wang Y, Leung GM, Yu H. (2013). Comparative epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China: a population-based study of laboratory-confirmed cases. Lancet, 382(9887)

Klick B, Durrani S, Chan KH, Ip DK, Chou ES, Kwok HK, Ng S, Chiu SS, Peiris JS, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Live attenuated seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine in school-age children: a randomized controlled trial. Vaccine, 31(15)

Ng S, Ni MY, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Chan KH, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2014). Characteristics of vaccine failures in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of inactivated influenza vaccine in children. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 33(2)

Ip DK, Liao Q, Wu P, Gao Z, Cao B, Feng L, Xu X, Jiang H, Li M, Bao J, Zheng J, Zhang Q, Chang Z, Li Y, Yu J, Liu F, Ni MY, Wu JT, Cowling BJ, Yang W, Leung GM, Yu H. (2013). Detection of mild to moderate influenza A/H7N9 infection by China's national sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illness: case series. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), (346)

Wong JY, Kelly H, Ip DK, Wu JT, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Case fatality risk of influenza A (H1N1pdm09): a systematic review. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 24(6)

Schooling CM, Freeman G, Cowling BJ. (2013). Mendelian randomization and estimation of treatment efficacy for chronic diseases. American journal of epidemiology, 177(10)

Cowling B, Desenclos JC, Riley S, Simonsen L, Viboud C. (2013). PLOS Currents: Outbreaks --- For findings that the world just can't wait to see. PLoS currents, (5)

Cheng CK, Channarith H, Cowling BJ. (2013). Potential use of school absenteeism record for disease surveillance in developing countries, case study in rural Cambodia. PloS one, 8(10)

Ng S, Ip DK, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Chiu SS, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2013). The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children. PloS one, 8(3)

Schooling CM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular events. Nature reviews. Endocrinology, 9(7)

Cowling BJ, Freeman G, Wong JY, Wu P, Liao Q, Lau EH, Wu JT, Fielding R, Leung GM. (2013). Preliminary inferences on the age-specific seriousness of human disease caused by avian influenza A(H7N9) infections in China, March to April 2013. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 18(19)

Klick B, Nishiura H, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2014). Optimal design of studies of influenza transmission in households. II: comparison between cohort and case-ascertained studies. Epidemiology and infection, 142(4)

Wong JY, Wu P, Nishiura H, Goldstein E, Lau EH, Yang L, Chuang SK, Tsang T, Peiris JS, Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2013). Infection fatality risk of the pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus in Hong Kong. American journal of epidemiology, 177(8)

Lau LL, Ip DK, Nishiura H, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Peiris JS, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Heterogeneity in viral shedding among individuals with medically attended influenza A virus infection. The Journal of infectious diseases, 207(8)

Cowling BJ, Ip DK, Fang VJ, Suntarattiwong P, Olsen SJ, Levy J, Uyeki TM, Leung GM, Malik Peiris JS, Chotpitayasunondh T, Nishiura H, Mark Simmerman J. Aerosol transmission is an important mode of influenza A virus spread. Nature communications, (4)

Kelly H, Cowling BJ. (2013). Case fatality: rate, ratio, or risk?. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 24(4)

Ng S, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Chan KH, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2013). Estimation of the association between antibody titers and protection against confirmed influenza virus infection in children. The Journal of infectious diseases, 208(8)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Peiris JS, Riley S, Leung GM. (2013). Viral shedding, clinical history and transmission of influenza. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, (19 Suppl 4)

Levy JW, Cowling BJ, Simmerman JM, Olsen SJ, Fang VJ, Suntarattiwong P, Jarman RG, Klick B, Chotipitayasunondh T. (2013). The serial intervals of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in households in Bangkok, Thailand. American journal of epidemiology, 177(12)

Cowling BJ, Ho LM, Riley S, Leung GM. (2013). Statistical algorithms for early detection of the annual influenza peak season in Hong Kong using sentinel surveillance data. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, (19 Suppl 4)

Ng GK, Leung GK, Johnston JM, Cowling BJ. (2013). Factors affecting implementation of accreditation programmes and the impact of the accreditation process on quality improvement in hospitals: a SWOT analysis. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, 19(5)

Lau EH, Cheng CK, Ip DK, Cowling BJ. (2012). Situational awareness of influenza activity based on multiple streams of surveillance data using multivariate dynamic linear model. PloS one, 7(5)

Cowling BJ. (2012). Airborne transmission of influenza: implications for control in healthcare and community settings. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 54(11)

Omori R, Cowling BJ, Nishiura H. (2012). How is vaccine effectiveness scaled by the transmission dynamics of interacting pathogen strains with cross-protective immunity?. PloS one, 7(11)

Lau EH, Nishiura H, Cowling BJ, Ip DK, Wu JT. (2012). Scarlet fever outbreak, Hong Kong, 2011. Emerging infectious diseases, 18(10)

Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Nishiura H, Chan KH, Ng S, Ip DK, Chiu SS, Leung GM, Peiris JS. (2012). Increased risk of noninfluenza respiratory virus infections associated with receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 54(12)

Wong IO, Cowling BJ, Leung GM, Schooling CM. (2012). Trends in mortality from septicaemia and pneumonia with economic development: an age-period-cohort analysis. PloS one, 7(6)

Wu P, Cowling BJ, Wu JT, Lau EH, Ip DK, Nishiura H. (2013). The epidemiological and public health research response to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1): experiences from Hong Kong. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 7(3)

Klick B, Nishiura H, Cowling BJ. (2012). Optimal design of intervention studies to prevent influenza in healthy cohorts. PloS one, 7(4)

Ng S, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Chiu SS, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2012). Humoral antibody response after receipt of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccinations one year apart in children. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 31(9)

Ejima K, Omori R, Cowling BJ, Aihara K, Nishiura H. (2012). The time required to estimate the case fatality ratio of influenza using only the tip of an iceberg: joint estimation of the virulence and the transmission potential. Computational and mathematical methods in medicine, (2012)

Wu P, Goldstein E, Ho LM, Yang L, Nishiura H, Wu JT, Ip DK, Chuang SK, Tsang T, Cowling BJ. (2012). Excess mortality associated with influenza A and B virus in Hong Kong, 1998-2009. The Journal of infectious diseases, 206(12)

Lau LL, Nishiura H, Kelly H, Ip DK, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2012). Household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(4)

Cowling BJ, Ng S, Ma ES, Fang VJ, So HC, Wai W, Cheng CK, Wong JY, Chan KH, Ip DK, Chiu SS, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2012). Protective efficacy against pandemic influenza of seasonal influenza vaccination in children in Hong Kong: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 55(5)

Cowling BJ, Nishiura H. (2012). Virus interference and estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness from test-negative studies. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(6)

Jacobs JH, Archer BN, Baker MG, Cowling BJ, Heffernan RT, Mercer G, Uez O, Hanshaoworakul W, Viboud C, Schwartz J, Tchetgen Tchetgen E, Lipsitch M. (2012). Searching for sharp drops in the incidence of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza by single year of age. PLoS One, 7(8)

Riley S, Leung GM, Ho LM, Cowling BJ. (2012). Transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in Hong Kong. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, (18 Suppl 2)

Riley R, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2012). Public health interventions to control the spread of a directly transmitted human pathogen within and between Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, (18 Suppl 2)

Kelly H, Mercer G, Cowling BJ. (2012). The association of seasonal influenza vaccination with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection. Vaccine, 30(12)

Ip DK, Schutten M, Fang VJ, Fung RO, Dutkowski RT, Chan KH, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2012). Validation of self-swab for virologic confirmation of influenza virus infections in a community setting. The Journal of infectious diseases, 205(4)

Ng S, Wu P, Nishiura H, Ip DK, Lee ES, Cowling BJ. (2011). An analysis of national target groups for monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine and trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in 2009-10 and 2010-11. BMC infectious diseases, (11)

Warren-Gash C, Bhaskaran K, Hayward A, Leung GM, Lo SV, Wong CM, Ellis J, Pebody R, Smeeth L, Cowling BJ. (2011). Circulating influenza virus, climatic factors, and acute myocardial infarction: a time series study in England and Wales and Hong Kong. The Journal of infectious diseases, 203(12)

Goldstein E, Cowling BJ, Aiello AE, Takahashi S, King G, Lu Y, Lipsitch M. (2011). Estimating incidence curves of several infections using symptom surveillance data. PLoS One, 6(8)

Klick B, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. (2012). Optimal design of studies of influenza transmission in households. I: case-ascertained studies. Epidemiology and infection, 140(1)

Zhou Y, Ng DM, Seto WH, Ip DK, Kwok HK, Ma ES, Ng S, Lau LL, Wu JT, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2011). Seroprevalence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 among healthcare workers after the first wave in Hong Kong. The Journal of hospital infection, 78(4)

Seto WH, Cowling BJ, Lam HS, Ching PT, To ML, Pittet D. (2011). Clinical and nonclinical health care workers faced a similar risk of acquiring 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 53(3)

Cheng CK, Ip DK, Cowling BJ, Ho LM, Leung GM, Lau EH. (2011). Digital dashboard design using multiple data streams for disease surveillance with influenza surveillance as an example. Journal of medical Internet research, 13(4)

Lam EH, Cowling BJ, Cook AR, Wong JY, Lau MS, Nishiura H. (2011). The feasibility of age-specific travel restrictions during influenza pandemics. Theoretical biology & medical modelling, (8)

Liao Q, Cowling BJ, Lam WW, Fielding R. (2011). Factors affecting intention to receive and self-reported receipt of 2009 pandemic (H1N1) vaccine in Hong Kong: a longitudinal study. PloS one, 6(3)

Zhou Y, Ng DM, Seto WH, Ip DK, Kwok HK, Ma ES, Ng S, Lau LL, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2011). Seroprevalence of pandemic H1N1 antibody among health care workers in Hong Kong following receipt of monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. PloS one, 6(11)

Wu JT, Cowling BJ. (2011). The use of mathematical models to inform influenza pandemic preparedness and response. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 236(8)

Kelly H, Peck HA, Laurie KL, Wu P, Nishiura H, Cowling BJ. (2011). The age-specific cumulative incidence of infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 was similar in various countries prior to vaccination. PloS one, 6(8)

Poon LL, Chan KH, Chu DK, Fung CC, Cheng CK, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2011). Viral genetic sequence variations in pandemic H1N1/2009 and seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses within an individual, a household and a community. Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 52(2)

Klick B, Nishiura H, Ng S, Fang VJ, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. (2011). Transmissibility of seasonal and pandemic influenza in a cohort of households in Hong Kong in 2009. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 22(6)

Wu JT, Lee CK, Cowling BJ, Yuen KY. (2011). Logistical feasibility and potential benefits of a population-wide passive immunotherapy program during an influenza pandemic. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 5(Suppl 1)

Wu JT, Ho A, Ma ES, Lee CK, Chu DK, Ho PL, Hung IF, Ho LM, Lin CK, Tsang T, Lo SV, Lau YL, Leung GM, Cowling BJ, Peiris JS. (2011). Estimating infection attack rates and severity in real time during an influenza pandemic: analysis of serial cross-sectional serologic surveillance data. PLoS medicine, 8(10)

Riley S, Kwok KO, Wu KM, Ning DY, Cowling BJ, Wu JT, Ho LM, Tsang T, Lo SV, Chu DK, Ma ES, Peiris JS. (2011). Epidemiological characteristics of 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza based on paired sera from a longitudinal community cohort study. PLoS medicine, 8(6)

Wu JT, Ma ES, Lee CK, Chu DK, Ho PL, Shen AL, Ho A, Hung IF, Riley S, Ho LM, Lin CK, Tsang T, Lo SV, Lau YL, Leung GM, Cowling BJ, Peiris JS. (2011). A serial cross-sectional serologic survey of 2009 Pandemic (H1N1) in Hong Kong: implications for future pandemic influenza surveillance. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 5(Suppl 1)

Cowling BJ, Lau LL, Wu P, Wong HW, Fang VJ, Riley S, Nishiura H. (2010). Entry screening to delay local transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). BMC infectious diseases, (10)

Wu JT, Ma ES, Lee CK, Chu DK, Ho PL, Shen AL, Ho A, Hung IF, Riley S, Ho LM, Lin CK, Tsang T, Lo SV, Lau YL, Leung GM, Cowling BJ, Malik Peiris JS. (2010). The infection attack rate and severity of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in Hong Kong. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 51(10)

Cowling BJ, Zhou Y, Ip DK, Leung GM, Aiello AE. (2010). Face masks to prevent transmission of influenza virus: a systematic review. Epidemiology and infection, 138(4)

Nishiura H, Cook AR, Cowling BJ. (2010). Assortativity and the Probability of Epidemic Extinction: A Case Study of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009). Interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases, (2011)

Goldstein E, Cowling BJ, O'Hagan JJ, Danon L, Fang VJ, Hagy A, Miller JC, Reshef D, Robins J, Biedrzycki P, Lipsitch M. (2010). Oseltamivir for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection in households, Milwaukee, 2009. BMC infectious diseases, (10)

Liao Q, Cowling BJ, Lam WW, Fielding R. (2011). The influence of social-cognitive factors on personal hygiene practices to protect against influenzas: using modelling to compare avian A/H5N1 and 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenzas in Hong Kong. International journal of behavioral medicine, 18(2)

Cowling BJ, Ng S, Ma ES, Cheng CK, Wai W, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Ip DK, Chiu SS, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2010). Protective efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination against seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infection during 2009 in Hong Kong. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 51(12)

Lau LL, Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Lau EH, Lipsitch M, Cheng CK, Houck PM, Uyeki TM, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2010). Viral shedding and clinical illness in naturally acquired influenza virus infections. The Journal of infectious diseases, 201(10)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, Lau LLH, So HC, Fung ROP, Ma ESK, Kwong ASK, Chan CW, Tsui WWS, Ngai HY, Chu DWS, Lee PWY, Chiu MC, Leung GM, Peiris JSM. (2010). Comparative epidemiology of pandemic and seasonal influenza A in households. The New England journal of medicine, 362(23)

Wu JT, Lee CK, Cowling BJ, Yuen KY. (2010). Logistical feasibility and potential benefits of a population-wide passive-immunotherapy program during an influenza pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(7)

Cowling BJ, Ng DM, Ip DK, Liao Q, Lam WW, Wu JT, Lau JT, Griffiths SM, Fielding R. (2010). Community psychological and behavioral responses through the first wave of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Hong Kong. The Journal of infectious diseases, 202(6)

Wu P, Lau EH, Cowling BJ, Leung CC, Tam CM, Leung GM. (2010). The transmission dynamics of tuberculosis in a recently developed Chinese city. PloS one, 5(5)

Cowling BJ, Lau MS, Ho LM, Chuang SK, Tsang T, Liu SH, Leung PY, Lo SV, Lau EH. (2010). The effective reproduction number of pandemic influenza: prospective estimation. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 21(6)

Cowling BJ, Leung GM. (2010). Simple physical interventions such as hand washing and wearing masks can reduce spread of respiratory viruses. Evidence-based medicine, 15(1)

Wu JT, Cowling BJ, Lau EH, Ip DK, Ho LM, Tsang T, Chuang SK, Leung PY, Lo SV, Liu SH, Riley S. (2010). School closure and mitigation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Hong Kong. Emerging infectious diseases, 16(3)

Lang BH, Lo CY, Wong IO, Cowling BJ. (2010). Impact of second primary malignancy on outcomes of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgery, 148(6)

Cheng CK, Lau EH, Ip DK, Yeung AS, Ho LM, Cowling BJ. (2009). A profile of the online dissemination of national influenza surveillance data. BMC public health, (9)

Lipsitch M, Hayden FG, Cowling BJ, Leung GM. (2009). How to maintain surveillance for novel influenza A H1N1 when there are too many cases to count. Lancet, 374(9696)

Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Riley S, Malik Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2009). Estimation of the serial interval of influenza. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 20(3)

Cowling BJ, Leung GM, Seto WH. (2009). Hand hygiene and virus transmission. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, 181(10)

Cowling BJ, Ng S, Longini IM Jr.. (2009). A/H1N1 flu pandemic. Antiviral drugs: distinguish treatment from prophylaxis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), (339)

Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, Cheng CK, Fung RO, Wai W, Sin J, Seto WH, Yung R, Chu DW, Chiu BC, Lee PW, Chiu MC, Lee HC, Uyeki TM, Houck PM, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2009). Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 151(7)

Cowling BJ, Fung RO, Cheng CK, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Seto WH, Yung R, Chiu B, Lee P, Uyeki TM, Houck PM, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2008). Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households. PloS one, 3(5)

Cowling BJ, Lau EH, Lam CL, Cheng CK, Kovar J, Chan KH, Peiris JS, Leung GM. (2008). Effects of school closures, 2008 winter influenza season, Hong Kong. Emerging infectious diseases, 14(10)

Cowling BJ, Muller MP, Wong IO, Ho LM, Louie M, McGeer A, Leung GM. (2007). Alternative methods of estimating an incubation distribution: examples from severe acute respiratory syndrome. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 18(2)

Cowling BJ, Ho LM, Leung GM. (2008). Effectiveness of control measures during the SARS epidemic in Beijing: a comparison of the Rt curve and the epidemic curve. Epidemiology and infection, 136(4)

Hui LL, Hedley AJ, Nelson EA, Malisch R, Wong TW, Cowling BJ. (2007). Agreement between breast milk dioxin levels by CALUX bioassay and chemical analysis in a population survey in Hong Kong. Chemosphere, 69(8)

Cowling BJ, Shaw JE, Hutton JL, Marson AG. (2007). New statistical method for analyzing time to first seizure: example using data comparing carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy. Epilepsia, 48(6)

Cowling BJ, Wong IO, Ho LM, Riley S, Leung GM. (2006). Methods for monitoring influenza surveillance data. International journal of epidemiology, 35(5)

Cowling BJ, Muller MP, Wong IO, Ho LM, Lo SV, Tsang T, Lam TH, Louie M, Leung GM. (2006). Clinical prognostic rules for severe acute respiratory syndrome in low- and high-resource settings. Archives of internal medicine, 166(14)

Cowling BJ, Hedley AJ. (2005). Was Rodney Ledward a statistical outlier? Statistical method may be difficult to apply in clinical practice. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 330(7505)