Marc Lipsitch






National Institutes of Health, National Institute of General Medical Sciences
People: Laura White, Ted Cohen, William Hanage, Rene Niehus, Ben Cowling, Tyler Brown, Joseph Wu, Mauricio Santillana Guzman, Joseph Lewnard, Aimee Taylor, Pablo Martinez de Salazar, Lerato Magosi, Edward Goldstein, Christine Tedijanto, Tigist Menkir, Sze Man Leung, Hsiao-Han Chang, Caroline Buckee, Pamela Martinez, Marc Lipsitch
2009 – 2020

Read More »


Goldstein E, Lipsitch M. (2020). The relation between prescribing of different antibiotics and rates of mortality with sepsis in US adults. BMC infectious diseases, 20(1)

Inglesby TV, Lipsitch M. (2020). Proposed Changes to U.S. Policy on Potential Pandemic Pathogen Oversight and Implementation. mSphere, 5(1)

Tedijanto C, Grad YH, Lipsitch M. (2020). Potential impact of outpatient stewardship interventions on antibiotic exposures of common bacterial pathogens. eLife, (9)

Kennedy-Shaffer L, de Gruttola V, Lipsitch M. (2019). Novel methods for the analysis of stepped wedge cluster randomized trials. Statistics in medicine

Goldstein E, Olesen SW, Karaca Z, Steiner CA, Viboud C, Lipsitch M. (2019). Levels of outpatient prescribing for four major antibiotic classes and rates of septicemia hospitalization in adults in different US states - a statistical analysis. BMC Public Health, 19(1)

MacFadden DR, Fisman DN, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M. (2019). The Relative Impact of Community and Hospital Antibiotic Use on the Selection of Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 69(1)

Abuelezam NN, Reshef YA, Novak D, Grad YH, Seage Iii GR, Mayer K, Lipsitch M. (2019). Interaction Patterns of Men Who Have Sex With Men on a Geosocial Networking Mobile App in Seven United States Metropolitan Areas: Observational Study. Journal of medical Internet research, 21(9)

Lipsitch M, Santillana M. (2019). Enhancing Situational Awareness to Prevent Infectious Disease Outbreaks from Becoming Catastrophic. Current topics in microbiology and immunology

Chua H, Feng S, Lewnard JA, Sullivan SG, Blyth CC, Lipsitch M, Cowling BJ. (2019). The use of test-negative controls to monitor vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review of methodology. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)

Yang A, Cai F, Lipsitch M. (2019). Herd immunity alters the conditions for performing dose schedule comparisons: an individual-based model of pneumococcal carriage. BMC infectious diseases, 19(1)

Gallagher T, Lipsitch M. (2019). Post-Exposure Effects of Vaccines on Infectious Diseases. Epidemiologic reviews

Lipsitch M. (2019). Challenges of Vaccine Effectiveness and Waning Studies. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 68(10)

Lewnard JA, Tedijanto C, Cowling BJ, Lipsitch M. (2019). THE AUTHORS REPLY. American journal of epidemiology, 188(4)

Eyal N, Kimmelman J, Holtzman LG, Lipsitch M. (2019). Regulating impact on bystanders in clinical trials: An unsettled frontier. Clinical trials (London, England), 16(5)

Mitchell PK, Azarian T, Croucher NJ, Callendrello A, Thompson CM, Pelton SI, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2019). Population genomics of pneumococcal carriage in Massachusetts children following introduction of PCV-13. Microbial genomics, 5(2)

Lehtinen S, Blanquart F, Lipsitch M, Fraser C, . (2019). On the evolutionary ecology of multidrug resistance in bacteria. PLoS pathogens, 15(5)

Georgieva M, Buckee CO, Lipsitch M. (2019). Models of immune selection for multi-locus antigenic diversity of pathogens. Nature reviews. Immunology, 19(1)

Langwig KE, Gomes MGM, Clark MD, Kwitny M, Yamada S, Wargo AR, Lipsitch M. (2019). Limited available evidence supports theoretical predictions of reduced vaccine efficacy at higher exposure dose. Scientific reports, 9(1)

Goldstein E, Finelli L, O'Halloran A, Liu P, Karaca Z, Steiner CA, Viboud C, Lipsitch M. (2019). Hospitalizations Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza in Children, Including Children Diagnosed with Asthma. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 30(6)

Lipsitch M, Shaman J. (2019). Comment on: 'Antibiotic footprint' as a communication tool to aid reduction of antibiotic consumption. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 74(11)

Goldstein E, MacFadden DR, Karaca Z, Steiner CA, Viboud C, Lipsitch M. (2019). Antimicrobial resistance prevalence, rates of hospitalization with septicemia and rates of mortality with sepsis in adults in different US states. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 54(1)

Kahn R, Hitchings M, Wang R, Bellan SE, Lipsitch M. (2019). Analyzing Vaccine Trials in Epidemics With Mild and Asymptomatic Infection. American journal of epidemiology, 188(2)

Hitchings MDT, Coldiron ME, Grais RF, Lipsitch M. (2019). Analysis of a meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Niger - potential effectiveness of reactive prophylaxis. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 13(3)

Lipsitch M, Li LM, Patterson S, Trammel J, Juergens C, Gruber WC, Scott DA, Dagan R. (2018). Serotype-specific immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among children are significantly correlated by individual: Analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Vaccine, 36(4)

Lewnard JA, Tähtinen PA, Laine MK, Lindholm L, Jalava J, Huovinen P, Lipsitch M, Ruohola A. (2018). Impact of Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media on Carriage Dynamics of Penicillin-Susceptible and Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. The Journal of infectious diseases, 218(9)

Sevilla JP, Bloom DE, Cadarette D, Jit M, Lipsitch M. (2018). Toward economic evaluation of the value of vaccines and other health technologies in addressing AMR. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(51)

Relman DA, Lipsitch M. (2018). Microbiome as a tool and a target in the effort to address antimicrobial resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(51)

Tedijanto C, Olesen SW, Grad YH, Lipsitch M. (2018). Estimating the proportion of bystander selection for antibiotic resistance among potentially pathogenic bacterial flora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(51)

Goldstein E, Nguyen HH, Liu P, Viboud C, Steiner CA, Worby CJ, Lipsitch M. (2018). On the Relative Role of Different Age Groups During Epidemics Associated With Respiratory Syncytial Virus. The Journal of infectious diseases, 217(2)

Lipsitch M. (2018). Why Do Exceptionally Dangerous Gain-of-Function Experiments in Influenza?. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), (1836)

Arnold BJ, Gutmann MU, Grad YH, Sheppard SK, Corander J, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2018). Weak Epistasis May Drive Adaptation in Recombining Bacteria. Genetics, 208(3)

Cai FY, Fussell T, Cobey S, Lipsitch M. (2018). Use of an individual-based model of pneumococcal carriage for planning a randomized trial of a whole-cell vaccine. PLoS computational biology, 14(10)

Azarian T, Grant LR, Arnold BJ, Hammitt LL, Reid R, Santosham M, Weatherholtz R, Goklish N, Thompson CM, Bentley SD, O'Brien KL, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M. (2018). The impact of serotype-specific vaccination on phylodynamic parameters of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the pneumococcal pan-genome. PLoS pathogens, 14(4)

Blanquart F, Lehtinen S, Lipsitch M, Fraser C. (2018). The evolution of antibiotic resistance in a structured host population. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 15(143)

Johansson MA, Reich NG, Meyers LA, Lipsitch M. (2018). Preprints: An underutilized mechanism to accelerate outbreak science. PLoS medicine, 15(4)

Goldstein E, Worby CJ, Lipsitch M. (2018). On the Role of Different Age Groups and Pertussis Vaccines During the 2012 Outbreak in Wisconsin. Open forum infectious diseases, 5(5)

Lewnard JA, Tedijanto C, Cowling BJ, Lipsitch M. (2018). Measurement of Vaccine Direct Effects Under the Test-Negative Design. American journal of epidemiology, 187(12)

Kahn R, Hitchings M, Bellan S, Lipsitch M. (2018). Impact of stochastically generated heterogeneity in hazard rates on individually randomized vaccine efficacy trials. Clinical trials (London, England), 15(2)

Hitchings MDT, Lipsitch M, Wang R, Bellan SE. (2018). Competing Effects of Indirect Protection and Clustering on the Power of Cluster-Randomized Controlled Vaccine Trials. American journal of epidemiology, 187(8)

Kahn R, Rid A, Smith PG, Eyal N, Lipsitch M. (2018). Choices in vaccine trial design in epidemics of emerging infections. PLoS medicine, 15(8)

Atkins KE, Lipsitch M. (2018). Can antibiotic resistance be reduced by vaccinating against respiratory disease?. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine, 6(11)

Lehtinen S, Blanquart F, Croucher NJ, Turner P, Lipsitch M, Fraser C. (2017). Evolution of antibiotic resistance is linked to any genetic mechanism affecting bacterial duration of carriage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(5)

Halloran ME, Auranen K, Baird S, Basta NE, Bellan SE, Brookmeyer R, Cooper BS, DeGruttola V, Hughes JP, Lessler J, Lofgren ET, Longini IM, Onnela JP, Özler B, Seage GR, Smith TA, Vespignani A, Vynnycky E, Lipsitch M. (2017). Simulations for designing and interpreting intervention trials in infectious diseases. BMC medicine, 15(1)

Lipsitch M. (2017). If a Global Catastrophic Biological Risk Materializes, at What Stage Will We Recognize It?. Health security, 15(4)

Langwig KE, Wargo AR, Jones DR, Viss JR, Rutan BJ, Egan NA, Sá-Guimarães P, Kim MS, Kurath G, Gomes MGM, Lipsitch M. (2017). Vaccine Effects on Heterogeneity in Susceptibility and Implications for Population Health Management. MBio, 8(6)

Croucher NJ, Campo JJ, Le TQ, Liang X, Bentley SD, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M. (2017). Diverse evolutionary patterns of pneumococcal antigens identified by pangenome-wide immunological screening. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(3)

Worby CJ, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2017). Shared Genomic Variants: Identification of Transmission Routes Using Pathogen Deep-Sequence Data. American journal of epidemiology, 186(10)

Lipsitch M, Eyal N. (2017). Improving vaccine trials in infectious disease emergencies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 357(6347)

Lewnard JA, Givon-Lavi N, Weinberger DM, Lipsitch M, Dagan R. (2017). Pan-serotype Reduction in Progression of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Otitis Media After Rollout of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 65(11)

Eyal N, Lipsitch M. (2017). Vaccine testing for emerging infections: the case for individual randomisation. Journal of medical ethics, 43(9)

Hitchings MD, Grais RF, Lipsitch M. (2017). Using simulation to aid trial design: Ring-vaccination trials. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 11(3)

Lipsitch M, Evans NG, Cotton-Barratt O. (2017). Underprotection of Unpredictable Statistical Lives Compared to Predictable Ones. Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis, 37(5)

Goldstein E, Pitzer VE, O'Hagan JJ, Lipsitch M. (2017). Temporally Varying Relative Risks for Infectious Diseases: Implications for Infectious Disease Control. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 28(1)

Chang HH, Huber RG, Bond PJ, Grad YH, Camerini D, Maurer-Stroh S, Lipsitch M. (2017). Systematic analysis of protein identity between Zika virus and other arthropod-borne viruses. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 95(7)

Grad YH, Lipsitch M. (2017). Reply to Allan-Blitz and Klausner. The Journal of infectious diseases, 215(3)

Worby CJ, Wallinga J, Lipsitch M, Goldstein E. (2017). Population effect of influenza vaccination under co-circulation of non-vaccine variants and the case for a bivalent A/H3N2 vaccine component. Epidemics, (19)

Leung K, Lipsitch M, Yuen KY, Wu JT. (2017). Monitoring the fitness of antiviral-resistant influenza strains during an epidemic: a mathematical modelling study. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 17(3)

Cobey S, Baskerville EB, Colijn C, Hanage W, Fraser C, Lipsitch M. (2017). Host population structure and treatment frequency maintain balancing selection on drug resistance. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 14(133)

McCormick AW, Abuelezam NN, Fussell T, Seage GR 3rd., Lipsitch M. (2017). Displacement of sexual partnerships in trials of sexual behavior interventions: A model-based assessment of consequences. Epidemics, (20)

Azarian T, Grant LR, Georgieva M, Hammitt LL, Reid R, Bentley SD, Goldblatt D, Santosham M, Weatherholtz R, Burbidge P, Goklish N, Thompson CM, Hanage WP, O'Brien KL, Lipsitch M. (2017). Association of Pneumococcal Protein Antigen Serology With Age and Antigenic Profile of Colonizing Isolates. The Journal of infectious diseases, 215(5)

Grad YH, Goldstein E, Lipsitch M, White PJ. (2016). Improving Control of Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea by Integrating Research Agendas Across Disciplines: Key Questions Arising From Mathematical Modeling. The Journal of infectious diseases, 213(6)

Grad YH, Harris SR, Kirkcaldy RD, Green AG, Marks DS, Bentley SD, Trees D, Lipsitch M. (2016). Genomic Epidemiology of Gonococcal Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins, Macrolides, and Fluoroquinolones in the United States, 2000-2013. The Journal of infectious diseases, 214(10)

Lipsitch M. (2016). Comment on "Gain-of-Function Research and the Relevance to Clinical Practice". The Journal of infectious diseases, 214(8)

Chang HH, Dordel J, Donker T, Worby CJ, Feil EJ, Hanage WP, Bentley SD, Huang SS, Lipsitch M. (2016). Identifying the effect of patient sharing on between-hospital genetic differentiation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Genome medicine, 8(1)

Lipsitch M, Barclay W, Raman R, Russell CJ, Belser JA, Cobey S, Kasson PM, Lloyd-Smith JO, Maurer-Stroh S, Riley S, Beauchemin CA, Bedford T, Friedrich TC, Handel A, Herfst S, Murcia PR, Roche B, Wilke CO, Russell CA. (2016). Viral factors in influenza pandemic risk assessment. Elife, (5)

Wu JT, Peak CM, Leung GM, Lipsitch M. (2016). Fractional dosing of yellow fever vaccine to extend supply: a modelling study. Lancet (London, England), 388(10062)

Lipsitch M, Cowling BJ. (2016). Zika vaccine trials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 353(6304)

Lipsitch M, Siber GR. (2016). How Can Vaccines Contribute to Solving the Antimicrobial Resistance Problem?. MBio, 7(3)

Lipsitch M, Jha A, Simonsen L. (2016). Observational studies and the difficult quest for causality: lessons from vaccine effectiveness and impact studies. International journal of epidemiology, 45(6)

Chang Q, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2016). Impact of Host Heterogeneity on the Efficacy of Interventions to Reduce Staphylococcus aureus Carriage. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 37(2)

Croucher NJ, Finkelstein JA, Pelton SI, Parkhill J, Bentley SD, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2015). Population genomic datasets describing the post-vaccine evolutionary epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Scientific data, (2)

Lipsitch M, Inglesby TV. (2015). Reply to "Studies on influenza virus transmission between ferrets: the public health risks revisited". MBio, 6(1)

Chang Q, Stevenson AE, Croucher NJ, Lee GM, Pelton SI, Lipsitch M, Finkelstein JA, Hanage WP. (2015). Stability of the pneumococcal population structure in Massachusetts as PCV13 was introduced. BMC infectious diseases, (15)

Worby CJ, Kenyon C, Lynfield R, Lipsitch M, Goldstein E. (2015). Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak. Scientific reports, (5)

Lipsitch M, Esvelt K, Inglesby T. (2015). Calls for caution in genome engineering should be a model for similar dialogue on pandemic pathogen research. Annals of internal medicine, 163(10)

Lipsitch M, Donnelly CA, Fraser C, Blake IM, Cori A, Dorigatti I, Ferguson NM, Garske T, Mills HL, Riley S, Van Kerkhove MD, Hernán MA. (2015). Potential Biases in Estimating Absolute and Relative Case-Fatality Risks during Outbreaks. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 9(7)

Althouse BM, Scarpino SV, Meyers LA, Ayers JW, Bargsten M, Baumbach J, Brownstein JS, Castro L, Clapham H, Cummings DA, Del Valle S, Eubank S, Fairchild G, Finelli L, Generous N, George D, Harper DR, Hébert-Dufresne L, Johansson MA, Konty K, Lipsitch M, Milinovich G, Miller JD, Nsoesie EO, Olson DR, Paul M, Polgreen PM, Priedhorsky R, Read JM, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, Smith DJ, Stefansen C, Swerdlow DL, Thompson D, Vespignani A, Wesolowski A. (2015). Enhancing disease surveillance with novel data streams: challenges and opportunities. EPJ data science, (4)

Trzciński K, Li Y, Weinberger DM, Thompson CM, Cordy D, Bessolo A, Malley R, Lipsitch M. (2015). Effect of Serotype on Pneumococcal Competition in a Mouse Colonization Model. MBio, 6(5)

Lipsitch M, Inglesby TV. (2015). Erratum for lipsitch and inglesby, moratorium on research intended to create novel potential pandemic pathogens. MBio, 6(1)

Li Y, Croucher NJ, Thompson CM, Trzciński K, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M. (2015). Identification of pneumococcal colonization determinants in the stringent response pathway facilitated by genomic diversity. BMC Genomics, (16)

Kunkel A, Colijn C, Lipsitch M, Cohen T. (2015). How could preventive therapy affect the prevalence of drug resistance? Causes and consequences. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 370(1670)

Mitchell PK, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2015). Carriage burden, multiple colonization and antibiotic pressure promote emergence of resistant vaccine escape pneumococci. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 370(1670)

Lipsitch M, Eyal N, Halloran ME, Hernán MA, Longini IM, Perencevich EN, Grais RF. (2015). Vaccine testing. Ebola and beyond. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6230)

Yang W, Lipsitch M, Shaman J. (2015). Inference of seasonal and pandemic influenza transmission dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(9)

Croucher NJ, Kagedan L, Thompson CM, Parkhill J, Bentley SD, Finkelstein JA, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2015). Selective and genetic constraints on pneumococcal serotype switching. PLoS genetics, 11(3)

Chang HH, Cohen T, Grad YH, Hanage WP, O'Brien TF, Lipsitch M. (2015). Origin and proliferation of multiple-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR, 79(1)

Worby CJ, Chaves SS, Wallinga J, Lipsitch M, Finelli L, Goldstein E. (2015). On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics. Epidemics, (13)

Goldstein E, Greene SK, Olson DR, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M. (2015). Estimating the hospitalization burden associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in New York City, 2003-2011. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 9(5)

Chang Q, Wang W, Regev-Yochay G, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2015). Antibiotics in agriculture and the risk to human health: how worried should we be?. Evolutionary applications, 8(3)

Jacobs JH, Viboud C, Tchetgen ET, Schwartz J, Steiner C, Simonsen L, Lipsitch M. (2014). The association of meningococcal disease with influenza in the United States, 1989-2009. PLoS One, 9(9)

Li Y, Thompson CM, Lipsitch M. (2014). A modified Janus cassette (Sweet Janus) to improve allelic replacement efficiency by high-stringency negative selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae. PLoS One, 9(6)

Fisman DN, Leung GM, Lipsitch M. (2014). Nuanced risk assessment for emerging infectious diseases. Lancet (London, England), 383(9913)

Grad YH, Lipsitch M. (2014). Epidemiologic data and pathogen genome sequences: a powerful synergy for public health. Genome biology, 15(11)

Quandelacy TM, Viboud C, Charu V, Lipsitch M, Goldstein E. (2014). Age- and sex-related risk factors for influenza-associated mortality in the United States between 1997-2007. American journal of epidemiology, 179(2)

Lipsitch M. (2014). Can limited scientific value of potential pandemic pathogen experiments justify the risks?. MBio, 5(5)

Lipsitch M, Inglesby TV. (2014). Moratorium on research intended to create novel potential pandemic pathogens. MBio, 5(6)

Worby CJ, Lipsitch M, Hanage WP. (2014). Within-host bacterial diversity hinders accurate reconstruction of transmission networks from genomic distance data. PLoS computational biology, 10(3)

Patterson-Lomba O, Van Noort S, Cowling BJ, Wallinga J, Gomes MG, Lipsitch M, Goldstein E. (2014). Utilizing syndromic surveillance data for estimating levels of influenza circulation. American journal of epidemiology, 179(11)

Worby CJ, Chang HH, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M. (2014). The distribution of pairwise genetic distances: a tool for investigating disease transmission. Genetics, 198(4)

Huang KE, Lipsitch M, Shaman J, Goldstein E. (2014). The US 2009 A(H1N1) influenza epidemic: quantifying the impact of school openings on the reproductive number. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 25(2)

Grad YH, Kirkcaldy RD, Trees D, Dordel J, Harris SR, Goldstein E, Weinstock H, Parkhill J, Hanage WP, Bentley S, Lipsitch M. (2014). Genomic epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime in the USA: a retrospective observational study. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 14(3)

Lipsitch M, Galvani AP. (2014). Ethical alternatives to experiments with novel potential pandemic pathogens. PLoS medicine, 11(5)

Ascioglu S, Samore MH, Lipsitch M. (2014). A new approach to the analysis of antibiotic resistance data from hospitals. Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.), 20(6)

Shaman J, Lipsitch M. (2013). The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-pandemic influenza connection: coincident or causal?. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, (110 Suppl 1)

Joice R, Lipsitch M. (2013). Targeting imperfect vaccines against drug-resistance determinants: a strategy for countering the rise of drug resistance. PLoS One, 8(7)

Grad YH, Godfrey P, Cerquiera GC, Mariani-Kurkdjian P, Gouali M, Bingen E, Shea TP, Haas BJ, Griggs A, Young S, Zeng Q, Lipsitch M, Waldor MK, Weill FX, Wortman JR, Hanage WP. (2013). Comparative genomics of recent Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4: short-term evolution of an emerging pathogen. MBio, 4(1)

Link-Gelles R, Thomas A, Lynfield R, Petit S, Schaffner W, Harrison L, Farley MM, Aragon D, Nicols M, Kirley PD, Zansky S, Jorgensen J, Juni BA, Jackson D, Moore MR, Lipsitch M. (2013). Geographic and temporal trends in antimicrobial nonsusceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the post-vaccine era in the United States. The Journal of infectious diseases, 208(8)

Lipsitch M. (2013). Avian influenza: Ferret H7N9 flu model questioned. Nature, 501(7465)

Li Y, Thompson CM, Trzcinski K, Lipsitch M. (2013). Within-host selection is limited by an effective population of Streptococcus pneumoniae during nasopharyngeal colonization. Infection and immunity, 81(12)

Weinberger DM, Bruden DT, Grant LR, Lipsitch M, O'Brien KL, Pelton SI, Sanders EA, Feikin DR. (2013). Using pneumococcal carriage data to monitor postvaccination changes in invasive disease. American journal of epidemiology, 178(9)

Li Y, Weinberger DM, Thompson CM, Trzcinski K, Lipsitch M. (2013). Surface charge of Streptococcus pneumoniae predicts serotype distribution. Infection and immunity, 81(12)

Shaman J, Karspeck A, Yang W, Tamerius J, Lipsitch M. (2013). Real-time influenza forecasts during the 2012-2013 season. Nature communications, (4)

Croucher NJ, Finkelstein JA, Pelton SI, Mitchell PK, Lee GM, Parkhill J, Bentley SD, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M. (2013). Population genomics of post-vaccine changes in pneumococcal epidemiology. Nature genetics, 45(6)

Cobey S, Lipsitch M. (2013). Pathogen diversity and hidden regimes of apparent competition. The American naturalist, 181(1)

Lipsitch M, Hernán MA. (2013). Oseltamivir effect on antibiotic-treated lower respiratory tract complications in virologically positive randomized trial participants. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 57(9)

Ford CB, Shah RR, Maeda MK, Gagneux S, Murray MB, Cohen T, Johnston JC, Gardy J, Lipsitch M, Fortune SM. (2013). Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rate estimates from different lineages predict substantial differences in the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Nature genetics, 45(7)

Grad YH, Lipsitch M, Griggs AD, Haas BJ, Shea TP, McCowan C, Montmayeur A, FitzGerald M, Wortman JR, Krogfelt KA, Bingen E, Weill FX, Tietze E, Flieger A, Lander ES, Nusbaum C, Birren BW, Hung DT, Hanage WP. (2012). Reply to Guy et al.: Support for a bottleneck in the 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(52)

Ke W, Huang SS, Hudson LO, Elkins KR, Nguyen CC, Spratt BG, Murphy CR, Avery TR, Lipsitch M. (2012). Patient sharing and population genetic structure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(17)

Pitzer VE, Burgner D, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Andreasen V, Steiner CA, Lipsitch M. (2012). Modelling seasonal variations in the age and incidence of Kawasaki disease to explore possible infectious aetiologies. Proceedings. Biological sciences, 279(1739)

Lipsitch M, Plotkin JB, Simonsen L, Bloom B. (2012). Evolution, safety, and highly pathogenic influenza viruses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6088)

Van Kerkhove MD, Riley S, Lipsitch M, Guan Y, Monto AS, Webster RG, Zambon M, Nicoll A, Peiris JS, Ferguson NM. (2012). Comment on "Seroevidence for H5N1 influenza infections in humans: meta-analysis". Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6088)

Grad YH, Lipsitch M, Feldgarden M, Arachchi HM, Cerqueira GC, Fitzgerald M, Godfrey P, Haas BJ, Murphy CI, Russ C, Sykes S, Walker BJ, Wortman JR, Young S, Zeng Q, Abouelleil A, Bochicchio J, Chauvin S, Desmet T, Gujja S, McCowan C, Montmayeur A, Steelman S, Frimodt-Møller J, Petersen AM, Struve C, Krogfelt KA, Bingen E, Weill FX, Lander ES, Nusbaum C, Birren BW, Hung DT, Hanage WP. (2012). Genomic epidemiology of the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreaks in Europe, 2011. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(8)

Cobey S, Lipsitch M. (2012). Niche and neutral effects of acquired immunity permit coexistence of pneumococcal serotypes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6074)

O'Hagan JJ, Hernán MA, Walensky RP, Lipsitch M. (2012). Apparent declining efficacy in randomized trials: examples of the Thai RV144 HIV vaccine and South African CAPRISA 004 microbicide trials. AIDS (London, England), 26(2)

Lipsitch M, Bloom BR. (2012). Rethinking biosafety in research on potential pandemic pathogens. MBio, 3(5)

Li Y, Gierahn T, Thompson CM, Trzcinski K, Ford CB, Croucher N, Gouveia P, Flechtner JB, Malley R, Lipsitch M. (2012). Distinct effects on diversifying selection by two mechanisms of immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. PLoS pathogens, 8(11)

Jacobs JH, Archer BN, Baker MG, Cowling BJ, Heffernan RT, Mercer G, Uez O, Hanshaoworakul W, Viboud C, Schwartz J, Tchetgen Tchetgen E, Lipsitch M. (2012). Searching for sharp drops in the incidence of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza by single year of age. PLoS One, 7(8)

Goldstein E, Viboud C, Charu V, Lipsitch M. (2012). Improving the estimation of influenza-related mortality over a seasonal baseline. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(6)

Goldstein E, Kirkcaldy RD, Reshef D, Berman S, Weinstock H, Sabeti P, Del Rio C, Hall G, Hook EW, Lipsitch M. (2012). Factors related to increasing prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and other antimicrobial drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States. Emerging infectious diseases, 18(8)

Lipsitch M, Abdullahi O, DʼAmour A, Xie W, Weinberger DM, Tchetgen Tchetgen E, Scott JA. (2012). Estimating rates of carriage acquisition and clearance and competitive ability for pneumococcal serotypes in Kenya with a Markov transition model. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(4)

Grad YH, Miller JC, Lipsitch M. (2012). Cholera modeling: challenges to quantitative analysis and predicting the impact of interventions. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(4)

Goldstein E, Cowling BJ, Aiello AE, Takahashi S, King G, Lu Y, Lipsitch M. (2011). Estimating incidence curves of several infections using symptom surveillance data. PLoS One, 6(8)

Shaman J, Goldstein E, Lipsitch M. (2011). Absolute humidity and pandemic versus epidemic influenza. American journal of epidemiology, 173(2)

Shaman J, Jeon CY, Giovannucci E, Lipsitch M. (2011). Shortcomings of vitamin D-based model simulations of seasonal influenza. PLoS One, 6(6)

Weinberger DM, Malley R, Lipsitch M. (2011). Serotype replacement in disease after pneumococcal vaccination. Lancet (London, England), 378(9807)

Weinberger DM, Harboe ZB, Flasche S, Scott JA, Lipsitch M. (2011). Prediction of serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in unvaccinated and vaccinated populations. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 22(2)

Goldstein E, Cobey S, Takahashi S, Miller JC, Lipsitch M. (2011). Predicting the epidemic sizes of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B: a statistical method. PLoS medicine, 8(7)

Hernán MA, Lipsitch M. (2011). Oseltamivir and risk of lower respiratory tract complications in patients with flu symptoms: a meta-analysis of eleven randomized clinical trials. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 53(3)

Lipsitch M, Finelli L, Heffernan RT, Leung GM, Redd SC, . (2011). Improving the evidence base for decision making during a pandemic: the example of 2009 influenza A/H1N1. Biosecurity and bioterrorism : biodefense strategy, practice, and science, 9(2)

Hanage WP, Bishop CJ, Huang SS, Stevenson AE, Pelton SI, Lipsitch M, Finkelstein JA. (2011). Carried pneumococci in Massachusetts children: the contribution of clonal expansion and serotype switching. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 30(4)

Shaman J, Pitzer VE, Viboud C, Grenfell BT, Lipsitch M. (2010). Absolute humidity and the seasonal onset of influenza in the continental United States. PLoS biology, 8(2)

Goldstein E, Cowling BJ, O'Hagan JJ, Danon L, Fang VJ, Hagy A, Miller JC, Reshef D, Robins J, Biedrzycki P, Lipsitch M. (2010). Oseltamivir for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection in households, Milwaukee, 2009. BMC infectious diseases, (10)

Weinberger DM, Harboe ZB, Sanders EA, Ndiritu M, Klugman KP, Rückinger S, Dagan R, Adegbola R, Cutts F, Johnson HL, O'Brien KL, Scott JA, Lipsitch M. (2010). Association of serotype with risk of death due to pneumococcal pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 51(6)

Wallinga J, van Boven M, Lipsitch M. (2010). Optimizing infectious disease interventions during an emerging epidemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(2)

Colijn C, Cohen T, Fraser C, Hanage W, Goldstein E, Givon-Lavi N, Dagan R, Lipsitch M. (2010). What is the mechanism for persistent coexistence of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae?. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 7(47)

Miller JC, Danon L, O'Hagan JJ, Goldstein E, Lajous M, Lipsitch M. (2010). Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1. PLoS One, 5(5)

Van Kerkhove MD, Asikainen T, Becker NG, Bjorge S, Desenclos JC, dos Santos T, Fraser C, Leung GM, Lipsitch M, Longini IM Jr., McBryde ES, Roth CE, Shay DK, Smith DJ, Wallinga J, White PJ, Ferguson NM, Riley S, . (2010). Studies needed to address public health challenges of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: insights from modeling. PLoS medicine, 7(6)

Huang SS, Avery TR, Song Y, Elkins KR, Nguyen CC, Nutter SK, Nafday AA, Condon CJ, Chang MT, Chrest D, Boos J, Bobashev G, Wheaton W, Frank SA, Platt R, Lipsitch M, Bush RM, Eubank S, Burke DS, Lee BY. (2010). Quantifying interhospital patient sharing as a mechanism for infectious disease spread. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 31(11)

Goldstein E, Miller JC, O'Hagan JJ, Lipsitch M. (2010). Pre-dispensing of antivirals to high-risk individuals in an influenza pandemic. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 4(2)

Lipsitch M, Tchetgen Tchetgen E, Cohen T. (2010). Negative controls: a tool for detecting confounding and bias in observational studies. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 21(3)

Lajous M, Danon L, López-Ridaura R, Astley CM, Miller JC, Dowell SF, O'Hagan JJ, Goldstein E, Lipsitch M. (2010). Mobile messaging as surveillance tool during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Mexico. Emerging infectious diseases, 16(9)

Goldstein E, Lipsitch M. (2009). Antiviral usage for H1N1 treatment: pros, cons and an argument for broader prescribing guidelines in the United States. PLoS currents, (1)

Goldstein E, Lipsitch M. (2009). H1N1 vaccination and adults with underlying health conditions in the US. PLoS currents, (1)

Goldstein E, Dushoff J, Ma J, Plotkin JB, Earn DJ, Lipsitch M. (2009). Reconstructing influenza incidence by deconvolution of daily mortality time series. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(51)

Goldstein E, Miller JC, O'Hagan J, Lipsitch M. (2009). Predispensing of antivirals to high-risk individuals in an influenza pandemic. PLoS currents, (1)

Pitzer VE, Lipsitch M. (2009). Exploring the relationship between incidence and the average age of infection during seasonal epidemics. Journal of theoretical biology, 260(2)

Wu JT, Leung GM, Lipsitch M, Cooper BS, Riley S. (2009). Hedging against antiviral resistance during the next influenza pandemic using small stockpiles of an alternative chemotherapy. PLoS medicine, 6(5)

Shaman J, Pitzer V, Viboud C, Lipsitch M, Grenfell B. (2009). Absolute Humidity and the Seasonal Onset of Influenza in the Continental US. PLoS currents, (2)

Lipsitch M, Viboud C. (2009). Influenza seasonality: lifting the fog. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(10)

Lipsitch M, Lajous M, O'Hagan JJ, Cohen T, Miller JC, Goldstein E, Danon L, Wallinga J, Riley S, Dowell SF, Reed C, McCarron M. (2009). Use of cumulative incidence of novel influenza A/H1N1 in foreign travelers to estimate lower bounds on cumulative incidence in Mexico. PLoS One, 4(9)

Lipsitch M, Riley S, Cauchemez S, Ghani AC, Ferguson NM. (2009). Managing and reducing uncertainty in an emerging influenza pandemic. The New England journal of medicine, 361(2)

Lipsitch M, Hayden FG, Cowling BJ, Leung GM. (2009). How to maintain surveillance for novel influenza A H1N1 when there are too many cases to count. Lancet (London, England), 374(9696)

Klugman KP, Astley CM, Lipsitch M. (2009). Time from illness onset to death, 1918 influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia. Emerging infectious diseases, 15(2)

Presanis AM, De Angelis D, , Hagy A, Reed C, Riley S, Cooper BS, Finelli L, Biedrzycki P, Lipsitch M. (2009). The severity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in the United States, from April to July 2009: a Bayesian analysis. PLoS medicine, 6(12)

Weinberger DM, Trzcinski K, Lu YJ, Bogaert D, Brandes A, Galagan J, Anderson PW, Malley R, Lipsitch M. (2009). Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide structure predicts serotype prevalence. PLoS pathogens, 5(6)

Lipsitch M, Colijn C, Cohen T, Hanage WP, Fraser C. (2009). No coexistence for free: neutral null models for multistrain pathogens. Epidemics, 1(1)

White LF, Wallinga J, Finelli L, Reed C, Riley S, Lipsitch M, Pagano M. (2009). Estimation of the reproductive number and the serial interval in early phase of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in the USA. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 3(6)

Cohen T, Lipsitch M. (2008). Too little of a good thing: a paradox of moderate infection control. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 19(4)

Trzciński K, Thompson CM, Srivastava A, Basset A, Malley R, Lipsitch M. (2008). Protection against nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae is mediated by antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Infection and immunity, 76(6)

Regev-Yochay G, Malley R, Rubinstein E, Raz M, Dagan R, Lipsitch M. (2008). In vitro bactericidal activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae and bactericidal susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cocolonized versus noncocolonized children. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(2)

Kenah E, Lipsitch M, Robins JM. (2008). Generation interval contraction and epidemic data analysis. Mathematical biosciences, 213(1)

Weinberger DM, Dagan R, Givon-Lavi N, Regev-Yochay G, Malley R, Lipsitch M. (2008). Epidemiologic evidence for serotype-specific acquired immunity to pneumococcal carriage. The Journal of infectious diseases, 197(11)

Lipsitch M, O'Hagan JJ. (2007). Patterns of antigenic diversity and the mechanisms that maintain them. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 4(16)

Lipsitch M, O'Neill K, Cordy D, Bugalter B, Trzcinski K, Thompson CM, Goldstein R, Pelton S, Huot H, Bouchet V, Reid R, Santosham M, O'Brien KL. (2007). Strain characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and invasive disease isolates during a cluster-randomized clinical trial of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The Journal of infectious diseases, 196(8)

Hatchett RJ, Mecher CE, Lipsitch M. (2007). Public health interventions and epidemic intensity during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(18)

Pitzer VE, Olsen SJ, Bergstrom CT, Dowell SF, Lipsitch M. (2007). Little evidence for genetic susceptibility to influenza A (H5N1) from family clustering data. Emerging infectious diseases, 13(7)

Pitzer VE, Leung GM, Lipsitch M. (2007). Estimating variability in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome to household contacts in Hong Kong, China. American journal of epidemiology, 166(3)

Hanage WP, Huang SS, Lipsitch M, Bishop CJ, Godoy D, Pelton SI, Goldstein R, Huot H, Finkelstein JA. (2007). Diversity and antibiotic resistance among nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage isolates in the post-heptavalent conjugate vaccine era. The Journal of infectious diseases, 195(3)

Lipsitch M, Cohen T, Murray M, Levin BR. (2007). Antiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza. PLoS medicine, 4(1)

Wang YC, Lipsitch M. (2006). Upgrading antibiotic use within a class: tradeoff between resistance and treatment success. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(25)

Lipsitch M, Robins JM, Mills CE, Bergstrom CT. (2006). Multiple outbreaks and flu containment plans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5775)

Cohen T, Lipsitch M, Walensky RP, Murray M. (2006). Beneficial and perverse effects of isoniazid preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-tuberculosis coinfected populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(18)

Palmer ME, Lipsitch M. (2006). The influence of hitchhiking and deleterious mutation upon asexual mutation rates. Genetics, 173(1)

Mills CE, Robins JM, Bergstrom CT, Lipsitch M. (2006). Pandemic influenza: risk of multiple introductions and the need to prepare for them. PLoS medicine, 3(6)

Regev-Yochay G, Trzcinski K, Thompson CM, Malley R, Lipsitch M. (2006). Interference between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus: In vitro hydrogen peroxide-mediated killing by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Journal of bacteriology, 188(13)

Trzcinski K, Thompson CM, Gilbey AM, Dowson CG, Lipsitch M. (2006). Incremental increase in fitness cost with increased beta -lactam resistance in pneumococci evaluated by competition in an infant rat nasal colonization model. The Journal of infectious diseases, 193(9)

Malley R, Trzcinski K, Srivastava A, Thompson CM, Anderson PW, Lipsitch M. (2005). CD4+ T cells mediate antibody-independent acquired immunity to pneumococcal colonization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(13)

Lipsitch M. (2005). Pandemic flu: we are not prepared. MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine, 7(2)

Lipsitch M. (2005). Ethics of rationing the flu vaccine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5706)

Huang SS, Finkelstein JA, Lipsitch M. (2005). Modeling community- and individual-level effects of child-care center attendance on pneumococcal carriage. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 40(9)

Trzciński K, MacNeil A, Klugman KP, Lipsitch M. (2005). Capsule homology does not increase the frequency of transformation of linked penicillin binding proteins PBP 1a and PBP 2x in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 49(4)

Lipsitch M, Whitney CG, Zell E, Kaijalainen T, Dagan R, Malley R. (2005). Are anticapsular antibodies the primary mechanism of protection against invasive pneumococcal disease?. PLoS medicine, 2(1)

Trzcinski K, Thompson C, Malley R, Lipsitch M. (2005). Antibodies to conserved pneumococcal antigens correlate with, but are not required for, protection against pneumococcal colonization induced by prior exposure in a mouse model. Infection and immunity, 73(10)

Teklehaimanot HD, Schwartz J, Teklehaimanot A, Lipsitch M. (2004). Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia II. Weather-based prediction systems perform comparably to early detection systems in identifying times for interventions. Malaria journal, (3)

Mills CE, Robins JM, Lipsitch M. (2004). Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza. Nature, 432(7019)

Lipsitch M, Bergstrom CT. (2004). Invited commentary: real-time tracking of control measures for emerging infections. American journal of epidemiology, 160(6)

Bergstrom CT, Lo M, Lipsitch M. (2004). Ecological theory suggests that antimicrobial cycling will not reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(36)

Cooper B, Lipsitch M. (2004). The analysis of hospital infection data using hidden Markov models. Biostatistics (Oxford, England), 5(2)

Trzcinski K, Thompson CM, Lipsitch M. (2004). Single-step capsular transformation and acquisition of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Journal of bacteriology, 186(11)

Teklehaimanot HD, Schwatrz J, Teklehaimanot A, Lipsitch M. (2004). Alert threshold algorithms and malaria epidemic detection. Emerging infectious diseases, 10(7)

Lipsitch M, Bergstrom CT, Antia R. (2003). Effect of human leukocyte antigen heterozygosity on infectious disease outcome: the need for allele-specific measures. BMC medical genetics, (4)

Lipsitch M, Cohen T, Cooper B, Robins JM, Ma S, James L, Gopalakrishna G, Chew SK, Tan CC, Samore MH, Fisman D, Murray M. (2003). Transmission dynamics and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5627)

Lipsitch M, Murray MB. (2003). Multiple equilibria: tuberculosis transmission require unrealistic assumptions. Theoretical population biology, 63(2)

McCormick AW, Whitney CG, Farley MM, Lynfield R, Harrison LH, Bennett NM, Schaffner W, Reingold A, Hadler J, Cieslak P, Samore MH, Lipsitch M. (2003). Geographic diversity and temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. Nature medicine, 9(4)

Trzcinski K, Thompson CM, Lipsitch M. (2003). Construction of otherwise isogenic serotype 6B, 7F, 14, and 19F capsular variants of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain TIGR4. Applied and environmental microbiology, 69(12)

Singer RS, Finch R, Wegener HC, Bywater R, Walters J, Lipsitch M. (2003). Antibiotic resistance--the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 3(1)

Lipsitch M, Singer RS, Levin BR. (2002). Antibiotics in agriculture: when is it time to close the barn door?. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(9)

Lipsitch M, Davis G, Corey L. (2002). Potential benefits of a serodiagnostic test for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to prevent neonatal HSV-1 infection. Sexually transmitted diseases, 29(7)

Lipsitch M, Sousa AO. (2002). Historical intensity of natural selection for resistance to tuberculosis. Genetics, 161(4)

Lipsitch M, Samore MH. (2002). Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective. Emerging infectious diseases, 8(4)

Lipsitch M. (1997). TRANSMISSION RATES AND HIV VIRULENCE: COMMENTS TO MASSAD. Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 51(1)

Lipsitch M, Siller S, Nowak MA. (1996). THE EVOLUTION OF VIRULENCE IN PATHOGENS WITH VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION. Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 50(5)

Lipsitch M, Herre EA, Nowak MA. (1995). HOST POPULATION STRUCTURE AND THE EVOLUTION OF VIRULENCE: A "LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS". Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 49(4)