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Artesunate + amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Colombian Pacific region: a noninferiority trial.

Abstract

In Colombia, there are no published studies for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria comparing artemisinin combination therapies. Hence, it is intended to demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy/safety profiles of artesunate + amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine treatments.

assessed through adverse events.

A total of 105 patients was included in each group: zero censored observations. Mean (95%CI - Confidence interval) adequate clinical and parasitological response rates: 100% for artesunate + amodiaquine and 99% for artemether-lumefantrine; the noninferiority criteria was met (Δ=1.7%). There was one late parasitological therapeutic failure (1%; artemether-lumefantrine group), typified by polymerase chain reaction as the MAD20 MSP1 allele. The fever clearance time (artesunate + amodiaquine group) was significantly shorter (p=0.002). Respectively, abdominal pain for artesunate + amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine was 1.9% and 3.8% at baseline (p=0.68) and 1% and 13.3% after treatment (p<0.001).

Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria treatment with artesunate + amodiaquine is noninferior to the artemether-lumefantrine standard treatment. The efficacy/safety profiles grant further studies in this and similar populations.

A randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority (Δ≤5%) clinical trial was performed in adults with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria using the 28-day World Health Organization validated design/definitions. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either oral artesunate + amodiaquine or artemether-lumefantrine. The primary efficacy endpoint: adequate clinical and parasitological response; secondary endpoints: - treatment failures defined per the World Health Organization.

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