Evidence of an Association of Increases in Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Coverage With Decreases in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnosis Rates in the United States, 2012-2016.


From 2012 to 2016, across the 10 states with the greatest increases in PrEP coverage, the EAPC decreased 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -5.2% to -2.9%). On average, across the states and District of Columbia, EAPC for a given year decreased by 1.1% (95% CI, -1.77% to -.49%) for an increase in PrEP coverage of 1 per 100 persons with indications. When controlling for VS, the state-specific EAPC for a given year decreased by 1.3% (95% CI, -2.12% to -.57%) for an increase in PrEP coverage of 1 per 100 persons with indications.

Annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses in the United States (US) have plateaued since 2013. We assessed whether there is an association between uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and decreases in HIV diagnoses.

We used 2012-2016 data from the US National HIV Surveillance System to estimate viral suppression (VS) and annual percentage change in diagnosis rate (EAPC) in 33 jurisdictions, and data from a national pharmacy database to estimate PrEP uptake. We used Poisson regression with random effects for state and year to estimate the association between PrEP coverage and EAPC: within jurisdictional quintiles grouped by changes in PrEP coverage, regressing EAPC on time; and among all jurisdictions, regressing EAPC on both time and jurisdictional changes in PrEP coverage with and without accounting for changes in VS.

We found statistically significant associations between jurisdictional increases in PrEP coverage and decreases in EAPC independent of changes in VS, which supports bringing PrEP use to scale in the US to accelerate reductions in HIV infections.

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