We discuss the avenues for research that would increase preparedness and efficiency of response should a South American arbovirus emerge in the Eastern Hemisphere.
We explore the histories of these two recent arbovirus experiences in South America. We then review similarly three endemic South American viruses: yellow fever, Oropouche, and Mayaro viruses.
We discuss the commonalities of the transmission systems and the possibility of an atypical emergence, that of New World virus to the Old World.
Zika and chikungunya viruses emerged as public health emergencies in the Western Hemisphere where previously they had not been reported on a large scale. Millions were infected as the viruses met with virtually no herd immunity upon emergence.