External disturbances impact helminth-host interactions by affecting dynamics of infection, parasite traits, and host immune responses.


accumulated in the host and, while it stimulated a clear immune reaction, many genes were downregulated both following reinfection and in dual infection, suggestive of a low host resistance.External perturbations affected parasite fecundity, including body length and number of eggs in utero, more significantly than abundance; however, there was no consistency in the parasite-immune relationships.Disentangling the processes affecting parasite life history, and how they relate to host responses, can provide a better understanding of how external disturbances impact disease severity and transmission, and how parasites strategies adjust to secure persistence at the host and the population level.

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