A well-matched vaccine may reduce the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness from 8.2% (95% range 4.3-13%) to 5.9% (95% range 2.9-9.7%), with 56-73% of this due to indirect protection. The programme is likely to be cost-effective unless both low severity and poor matching is assumed.
A model of influenza transmission and disease was fitted to weekly primary care consultations due to influenza in a typical pre-pandemic season (2006/2007). Different scenarios were constructed about influenza severity and how well vaccines match circulating strains to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of the current vaccination programme.
The seasonal influenza vaccination programme in England targets individuals over 65 years old and in clinical risk groups.
The current seasonal influenza vaccination programme appears to substantially reduce disease burden and provides good value for money.