We found that secretors were 9.9 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9-24.8) as likely to be infected with genogroup II.4 noroviruses and 2.2 times as likely to be infected with genogroup II non-4 noroviruses (95% CI, 1.2-4.2) compared with nonsecretors. Secretors were also 26.6 times more susceptible to infections from P-type rotaviruses compared with nonsecretors (95% CI, 8.3-85.0).
Our analyses indicate that host genetic susceptibility to norovirus and rotavirus infection may be strain specific. As strain distribution and the proportion of genetic phenotypes vary in different countries, future studies should focus on differences in susceptibility among various ethnicities. Knowledge of innate susceptibility to rotavirus and norovirus can lead to improved understanding of both vaccine performance and individual risk of disease.
Norovirus and rotavirus are prominent enteric viruses responsible for severe acute gastroenteritis disease burden around the world. Both viruses recognize and bind to histo-blood group antigens, which are expressed by the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene. Individuals with a functional FUT2 gene are termed "secretors." FUT2 polymorphisms may influence viral binding patterns and, therefore, may influence host susceptibility to infection by these viruses.
We performed a systematic review of the published literature on this topic. Data were abstracted and compiled for descriptive analyses and metaanalyses. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) for infection using random-effects models.