Human Activity Determines the Presence of Integron-Associated and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Southwestern British Columbia.


), an association which may be used as a proxy for anthropogenic activities. Chemical analysis of water samples for three major groups of antibiotics was below the detection limit. However, the high richness and gene copy numbers (GCNs) of ARGs in impacted sites suggest that the effects of effluents on microbial communities are occurring even at low concentrations of antimicrobials in the water column. Antibiotic resistance and integrase genes in a year-long metagenomic study showed that ARGs were driven mainly by environmental factors from anthropogenized sites in agriculture and urban watersheds. Environmental factors such as land-use and water quality parameters accounted for 45% of the variability observed in watershed locations.

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