Monthly all-cause and pneumonia and influenza (P&I) mortality rates were compiled for adults with AIDS aged 25-54 years in South Africa (1998-2005) and the United States (pre-HAART era, 1987-1994; HAART era, 1997-2005). We estimated influenza-related deaths as excess mortality above a model baseline during influenza epidemic periods. Influenza-related mortality rates in adults with AIDS were compared with rates for age peers in the general population and adults ≥65 years old.
Adults with AIDS experience substantially elevated influenza-associated mortality, which declines with widespread HAART introduction but does not disappear. These data support increased access to HAART and influenza vaccination for HIV-infected adults.
In the United States before HAART, influenza-related mortality rates in adults with AIDS were 150 (95% confidence interval [CI], 49-460) and 208 (95% CI, 74-583) times greater than in the general population for all-cause and P&I deaths, respectively, and 2.5 (95% CI, 0.9-7.2) and 4.1 (95% CI, 1.4-13) times higher than in elderly adults. After HAART introduction , influenza-related mortality in adults with AIDS dropped 3-6-fold but remained elevated compared with the general population (all-cause relative risk [RR], 44 [95% CI, 16-121]); P&I RR, 73 [95% CI, 47-113]). Influenza-related mortality in South African adults with AIDS in recent years was similar to that in the United States in the pre-HAART era.
Data are limited on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated influenza burden in sub-Saharan Africa and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We compared influenza-related mortality in adults with AIDS in South Africa and the United States in the pre-HAART era and evaluated mortality trends after HAART introduction in the United States.
Cohen C, Simonsen L, Sample J, Kang JW, Miller M, Madhi SA, Campsmith M, Viboud C. (2012). Influenza-related mortality among adults aged 25-54 years with AIDS in South Africa and the United States of America. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 55(7)