Live attenuated influenza vaccine, but not pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, protects against increased density and duration of pneumococcal carriage after influenza infection in pneumococcal colonized mice.


Secondary bacterial infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, responsible for excess morbidity and mortality during influenza epidemics, are often preceded by excess bacterial density within the upper respiratory tract. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines reduce secondary infections within the lungs; however, their effects on upper respiratory tract carriage remain unknown. We demonstrate that a live attenuated influenza vaccine significantly reduces pneumococcal growth and duration of carriage during subsequent influenza to levels seen in influenza-naive controls. No benefit was seen after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Our results suggest that live attenuated influenza vaccines may significantly reduce bacterial disease during influenza epidemics.

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