Longer-term Direct and Indirect Effects of Infant Rotavirus Vaccination Across All Ages in the United States in 2000-2013: Analysis of a Large Hospital Discharge Data Set.


Following vaccine introduction, a decrease in rotavirus hospitalizations occurred with a shift toward biennial patterns across all ages. The 0-4-year age group experienced the largest decrease in rotavirus hospitalizations (rate ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, .09-.23). The 5-19-year and 20-59-year age groups experienced significant declines in rotavirus hospitalization rates overall; the even postvaccine calendar years were characterized by progressively lower rates, and the odd postvaccine years were associated with reductions in rates that diminished over time. Those aged ≥60 years experienced the smallest change in rotavirus hospitalization rates overall, with significant reductions in even postvaccine years compared with prevaccine years (rate ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, .39-.66).

Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases were used to conduct a time-series analysis of monthly hospital discharges across age groups for acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus from 2000 to 2013. Rate ratios were calculated comparing prevaccine and postvaccine eras.

Indirect impacts of infant rotavirus vaccination are apparent in the emergence of biennial patterns in rotavirus hospitalizations that extend to all age groups ineligible for vaccination. These observations are consistent with the notion that young children are of primary importance in disease transmission and that the initial postvaccine period of dramatic population-wide impacts will be followed by more complex incidence patterns across the age range in the long term.

Rotavirus disease rates dramatically declined among children <5 years of age since the rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2006; population-level impacts remain to be fully elucidated.

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