Modeling the Effect of Tylosin Phosphate on Macrolide-Resistant Enterococci in Feedlots and Reducing Resistance Transmission.


within the cattle large intestine, feedlot pen, water trough, and feed bunk. The model parameters' population distributions were based on the available literature; 1000 Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the likely distribution of outcomes. At the end of the simulated treatment period, the median estimated proportion of macrolide-resistant enterococci was only 1 percentage point higher within treated cattle compared with cattle not fed TYL, in part because the TYL concentrations in the large intestine were substantially lower than the enterococci minimum inhibitory concentrations. However, 25% of the simulated cattle had a >10 percentage point increase in the proportion of resistant enterococci associated with TYL administration, termed the TYL effect. The model predicts withdrawing TYL treatment and moving cattle to an antimicrobial-free terminal pen with a low prevalence of resistant environmental enterococci for as few as 6 days could reduce the TYL effect by up to 14 percentage points. Additional investigation of the importance of this subset of cattle to the overall risk of resistance transmission from feedlots will aid in the interpretation and implementation of resistance mitigation strategies.

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