Neighborhood characteristics as confounders and effect modifiers for the association between air pollution exposure and subjective cognitive functioning.


) concentrations at residential addresses using a fusion of dispersion and chemical transport models. We collected census-tract level N-SES indicators and created two composite measures via principal component analysis and k-means clustering. Associations between pollutants and CFI and effect modification by N-SES were estimated via linear regression models adjusted for age, education, race and N-SES.

N-SES is an important confounder and effect modifier in our study. This finding could have implications for studying health effects of air pollution and identifying susceptible populations.

Air pollution has been associated with cognitive function in the elderly. Previous studies have not evaluated the simultaneous effect of neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (N-SES), which can be an essential source of bias.

were associated with higher changes in CFI, namely 13.0% (0.9,26.5), 13.0% (-0.1,27.8), and 17.3% (2.5,34.2), respectively.

We explored N-SES as a confounder and effect modifier in a cross-sectional study of air pollution and subjective cognitive function.

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