-means clustering of the recombinant A1/D genomes revealed a section of envelope (C2gp120-TMgp41) is often inherited intact, whilst a generalized linear model was used to demonstrate significantly fewer breakpoints in the gag-pol and envelope C2-TM regions compared with accessory gene regions. Despite similar recombination patterns in many recombinants, no clearly supported circulating recombinant form (CRF) was found, there was limited evidence of the transmission of breakpoints, and the vast majority (153/164; 93 per cent) of the A1/D recombinants appear to be unique recombinant forms. Thus, recombination is pervasive with clear biases in breakpoint location, but CRFs are not a significant feature, characteristic of a complex, and diverse epidemic.
Grant HE, Hodcroft EB, Ssemwanga D, Kitayimbwa JM, Yebra G, Esquivel Gomez LR, Frampton D, Gall A, Kellam P, de Oliveira T, Bbosa N, Nsubuga RN, Kibengo F, Kwan TH, Lycett S, Kao R, Robertson DL, Ratmann O, Fraser C, Pillay D, Kaleebu P, Leigh Brown AJ. (2020). Pervasive and non-random recombination in near full-length HIV genomes from Uganda. Virus evolution, 6(1)