Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis. Of 1116 at-risk infants, 6 (1.1%) in the FF group and 7 (1.3%) in the BF group were infected between birth and 1 month (P=.99). Maternal receipt of nevirapine did not predict early MTCT in the BF group (P=.45). Of 547 infants in the BF group at risk for late MTCT, 24 (4.4%) were infected. Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma (P<.001) and breast milk (P<.001) predicted late MTCT. These findings support the safety of 1 month of breast-feeding in combination with maternal and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197691 and NCT00197652.
Shapiro RL, Smeaton L, Lockman S, Thior I, Rossenkhan R, Wester C, Stevens L, Moffat C, Arimi P, Ndase P, Asmelash A, Leidner J, Novitsky V, Makhema J, Essex M. (2009). Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana. The Journal of infectious diseases, 199(3)