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The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on the economic burden of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Brazil and potential value of new CL drug treatments.

Abstract

Convergence of geographic regions endemic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) raise concerns that HIV co-infection may worsen CL burden, complicating already lengthy and costly CL treatments and highlighting a need for newer therapies. We constructed two Markov decision models to quantify impact of HIV on CL and help establish a target product profile for new CL treatments, accounting for co-infection. The HIV co-infection increased lifetime cost per CL case 11-371 times ($1,349-45,683) that of HIV-negative individuals ($123) and Brazil's CL burden from $1.6-16.0 million to $1.6-65.5 million. A new treatment could be a cost saving at ≤ $254 across several ranges (treatments seeking probabilities, side effect risks, cure rates) and continues to save costs up to $508 across treatment-seeking probabilities with a drug cure rate of ≥ 50%. The HIV co-infection can increase CL burden, suggesting more joint HIV and CL surveillance and control efforts are needed.

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