University of California Berkeley
Influenza is associated with primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonias; however, the dynamics of this relationship in populations with varied levels of pneumococcal vaccination remain unclear. We conducted nested matched case-control studies in two prospective cohorts of Nicaraguan children aged 2-14 years: one before PCV introduction (2008-2010) and one following its introduction and near universal adoption (2011-2018). The association between influenza and pneumonia was similar in both cohorts. Participants with influenza (across types/subtypes) had higher odds of developing pneumonia in the month following influenza infection. These findings underscore the importance of considering influenza in interventions to reduce global pneumonia burden.